PARA QUIMICOSCurso de Inglés específico para químicos o profesionales (o estudiantes) en el campo de la química
Aprende a :
1. Comunicar utilizando términos técnicos específicos de la materia 2. Entender y redactar artículos científicos
3. Aprende a escribir tu curriculum en inglés, expande tus horizontes 4. Descubre las otras ventajas …
Este libro está dirigido en particular a estudiantes o profesionales del sector químico en general.
El objetivo de este libro es promover el aprendizaje de modo activo, por lo que proponemos textos técnicos y científicos para aprender de modo simple y eficaz.
Para un mejor provecho del contenido de este curso se recomienda poseer conocimientos básicos de inglés general antes de afrontar el inglés técnico especifico.
El objetivo principal es que usted, al final de este curso logre:
1. Leer y comprender textos de carácter técnico o científico que presenten términos, expresiones o estructuras sintácticas características de las ciencias químicas y ciencias afines.
2. Mejorar la capacidad de producción escrita y de comprensión de textos técnicos de carácter científico
3. El libro propone diferentes argumentos científicos divididos por capítulos y cuenta con ejercicios. 4. Ampliar el propio vocabulario relativo al mundo de la química en general
5. Escribir el propio currículo vitae en inglés
6. Dominar una valida herramienta para afrontar el mercado laboral cada vez más competitivo.
Estructura del curso:
Introducción: Survival english - Inglés general básico
Laboratory equipment and lab work + Safety in the laboratory
Introducing chemistry: Matter, Branches of chemistry, The periodic table, Chemical reactions. Chemical Compounds: Nomenclature
Environmental damage Industrial Chemistry
How to write a resume that generates results Improving your English
Remembering numbers Page 5
Definition of atom Page 6
Atomic number Page 7
Temperature Page 8
Chemistry of colours Page 9
The pH scale Page 10
Tips on studying a foreign language Page 11
What is chemistry? Page 12
Building blocks of matter Page 14
States of matter Page 15 – 16
Lewis structure Page 17
The Periodic Table Page 18 – 19
Chemical Phenomenon Page 20
Chemical Reactions Page 21
Laboratory equipment Page 23 – 28
Words relating to lab work Page 29
Lab Safety Rules Page 30
Laboratory Safety equipment Page 31
Hazard Diagrams Page 32
Chemical Labels Page 33
Lab work Page 35
Traditional naming of inorganic compounds Page 37 – 39 IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds Page 40 – 41
List of common ion names Page 42
IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds Page 43 – 45 Organic compounds list containing a few types of organic molecules P. 46
Pollution Page 49
The lexicon of environmental damage Page 50
Sewage treatment Page 51
Basics of piping & Instrumentation Diagrams Page 53
Symbols for process equipment Page 54
Units of measurement Page 55
Writing a resume Page 57
Refreshing your English
target: Refresh your english
- The atomic number, Temperature
2.Remembering colors, the pH scale
3.Tips on studying a foreign language
4.Steps to write a summary
Vocabulary: Atom = Atomo Structure = Estructura Protons = Protones Neutrons = Neutrones Elements = Elementos Nucleus = Nucleo Scales = Escalas
Measurement = Medicion / to measure = medir To absorb = absorber
Due to = debido a…
Discoveries = descubrimientos Theoretical = teorico
Chemical phenomena = Fenomeno Quimico Matter = Materia Shape = Forma Bond = Enlace Surrounded = Rodeado Shape = Forma Bond = Enlace Surrounded = Rodeado
Takes place = Tener lugar (ocurrir) To Combine = Combinar
Compound = Compuesto Reactants = Reactivos Products = Productos Mean = Medio
Made of = Hecho/a de/por….
En esta primera unidad podrás encontrar algunas frases escritas en español. A partir de la unidad 2 se usará principalmente el inglés para que te
Remembering Numbers1. One 2. Two 3. Three 4. Four 5. Five 6. Six 7. Seven 8. Eight 9. Nine 10.Ten 11.Eleven 12.Twelve 13.Thirteen 14.Fourteen 15.Fifteen 16.Sixteen 17.Seventeen 18.Eighteen 19.Nineteen 20.Twenty 21.Twenty-one ….etc 30. Thirty 40. Forty 50. Fifty 60. Sixty 70. Seventy 80. Eighty 90. Ninety
100. One hundred (a hundred) 101. One hundred and one…etc 200. Two hundred…etc
1000. One thousand (a thousand) 2001. Two thousand and one 1.000.000 One million
Los números que van desde 21 a 99 se escriben con un guion “-“ entre la decena y la unidad (example: 21 = twenty-one)
En british english (inglés británico) para los números mayores de 100 se usa and entre las centenas y el resto del número (example: 210 = two hundred and ten ; en inglés americano (American english) se dice two hundred ten (sin and)
6 Hundred, thousand, million se escriben sin la s del plural, excepto cuando son usados como expresiones indefinidas. (example: hundreds of dollars = centenares de dólares) los números grandes se escriben con comas, no con puntos y los números con decimales se escriben con puntos no con comas. Los números
decimales después de la coma se leen singularmente (example: 86,512 eighty-six
point five one two) Notar que el point indica que los números que expresaré
después son decimales.
Numero Abreviación En españolFirst 1st Primero Second 2nd Segundo Third 3rd Tercero Fourth 4th Cuarto Fifth 5th Quinto Sixth 6th Sexto Seventh 7th Séptimo Eighth 8th Octavo Nineth 9th Noveno tenth 10th Décimo
A todos los números se les agrega la terminación –th, menos a los que terminan en 1, 2 o 3 (después del 20), a los que se agrega, -st, -nd, -rd, respectivamente. Example: Twenty-first (21st), twenty-second (22nd), twenty-third (23rd)
Definition of atom
Do you ever wonder what’s an atom?
All objects surrounding1 us are made of2 matter3. Air, water, a brick, even4 you are made of matter! Matter is anything that has mass. Matter is made up5 of smaller pieces; atoms.
An atom is the defining structure of an element, which cannot be broken by any chemical means6. An atom consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons with electrons circling7 this nucleus.
Surrounding = que rodea/rodeando
2 Made of = hecho de/ compuesto por 3
Matter = materia
Even = hasta / incluso / aun
5 Made up = sinonimo de “made of” 6
Chemical means = medios quimicos/metodos quimicos
The atomic number is the number of protons in an element. the number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons.
Prueba tu: Intenta traducir los párrafos anteriores (definition of atom and Atomic
number) al español. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
Numbers and temperature
There are many scales1 of temperature: Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin. The most commonly2 used is Celsius. In U.S.A is mostly3 used the Fahrenheit scale.
For practical purposes of scientific temperature measurement4, the International System of Units (SI) defines a scale and unit for the thermodynamic temperature: Kelvin, which the unit symbol is K. Grados (Spanish) = Degrees (English)
Fahrenheit = Celsius * 9 / 5 + 32 Celsius = (Fahrenheit - 32) * 5 / 9 Kelvin = Celsius + 273.15
Exercise 1 - Try to complete the blanks with: 296,15 - 89,6 – 1.85 - 51,6
32 oC ________ F 125 F ________ oC 23 oC ________ K 275 K ________ oC 1 Scales = Escalas 2 Commonly = Comunmente 3 Mostly = Mayormente 4
Chemistry of colours
Every day materials we use presents many different colors. But why things have
color? Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation and delivers1 energy in little packets called photons. All materials absorb photons of some energy, but only substances2 that absorb photons of visible radiations will have color. The color of a transparent object is due to3 the colors of light that can pass through4 the material. The color of any colored object comes from the light it doesn’t absorb. The color absorbed
determines the color observed.
Color absorbed Color observed
Red Blue green
Yellow green Violet
Blue violet Yellow
Remembering the colours
-Exercise 2 - match the color with the correct name
Try to do this exercise without looking at the solutions at the end of the next page.
1 Deliver = Llevar 2
Substances = Sustancias
Due to = Debido a…
The pH scale
What is Acid? There are three common1 definitions for acids: the Arrhenius definition, the Brønsted-Lowry definition, and the Lewis definition. A Lewis acid is a species that
accepts a pair of electrons from another species; in other words, it is an electron pair acceptor
What is base? A base is a chemical species that donates
electrons or hydroxide ions or that accepts protons.
The pH scale measures2 how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A pH greater than 7 is basic.
An indicator is usually some weak3 organic acid or base dye4 that changes colors5 at definite pH values.
One of the oldest and most commonly used forms of pH indicator is the litmus
paper. Litmus paper is paper that has been treated6 with a specific indicator - a
mixture of 10-15 natural dyes obtained from lichens that changes colors at definite pH values.
Colors in a pH indicator
0 – Red
1 – Orange Red
2 – Dark orange
3 – Orange
4 – Tan
5 – Sun Yellow
6 – Lemon Yellow
7 – Yellow green
8 – Olive drab
9 – Asparagus
10 – Dark sea green
11- Royal blue
12 – Dark slate blue 13 – Ultramarine
14 - Navy blue
Common = Comun / General
2 Measures = Mide 3
Weak = Débil
Dye = Tinte / Tinta / Tintura 5
Color = In American (USA) English we write “color”, in british English “colour” but the meaning is the same.
11 Important! : key for exercise 2 (Chemistry of colors): Page 9
Tips on studying a foreign Language
Study every day
Isolate new vocabulary and study it separately
Avoid word-by-word translation.
Read many times a new passage trying to guess the meaning of a new
word from context.
Check word endings
Memorize irregular verbs
Practice: read and listen, watch foreign TV, read news in English
Stay up-to-date, read, listen, speak, as frequently as possible.
Try to write a summary of what you’ve learned in this unit
Steps to write a summary
1. Read the passage twice
2. try to understand the passage
3. Find out exactly what you need to summarize 4. Identify the main idea.
5. Write your first draft. Then edit your first draft. 6. Make a list of the new words you've learned
2.States of Matter
3.Atoms and molecules
4.The periodic table
5.Chemical reactions Vocabulary: Atom = Atomo Structure = Estructura Protons = Protones Neutrons = Neutrones Elements = Elementos Nucleus = Nucleo Scales = Escalas
Measurement = Medicion / to measure = medir To absorb = absorber
Due to = debido a…
Discoveries = descubrimientos Theoretical = teorico
Chemical phenomena = Fenomeno Quimico Matter = Materia Shape = Forma Bond = Enlace Surrounded = Rodeado Shape = Forma Bond = Enlace Surrounded = Rodeado
Takes place = Tener lugar (ocurrir) To Combine = Combinar
Compound = Compuesto Reactants = Reactivos Products = Productos
What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is an experimental science. Chemistry is evidence based. All chemical statements1 are based on experiment. It shares2 the experimental method of all sciences. It improves in time also using new discoveries3 and concepts from other sciences.
In turn, it provides both theoretical and experimental tools to different sciences. Biology, Geology cannot be studied without a thorough4 understanding of chemical phenomena.
Chemistry is the study of matter and changes that take place with that matter.
Branches of Chemistry
Find the words that describes the branches of chemistry
I N O R G A N I C R T Q R Y G A R R Y X C P H I S Y J L F Y G W E R T Y E J K L O W W X A P O Z L I M X R E N E F I N D U S T R I A L X U Y O R I T Y E W Q S E R T C H L I C A N A L Y T I C A L H X C F G G E N E R A L Y E V N T Y U R F P H Y S I C A L B I O C H E M I S T R Y R O
Inorganic – organic – industrial – analytical – general – physical – nuclear – chemistry - biochemistry
Exercise 3 - Fill in the blanks with the words you’ve found.
The branch of chemistry that studies compounds of carbon is ……… Application of chemistry to manufacturing processes: ……… The branch of chemistry that studies compounds excluding those of carbon is ……….studies radioactivity, fission and fusion of nuclei ……….studies molecules and their transformation
1 Statement = Declaracion / Afirmacion 2
Shares = Comparte
Discoveries = Descubrimientos
Biochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies chemical processes in living
The determination of the composition of substances are studied in ………..
Application of mathematics and physics to chemistry: Physical chemistry
The building blocks of matter
Matter is everything around us that we can touch, or see, or feel, or smell. Remember the definition of matter.
Matter: is anything that takes up space or has a mass of any kind.
Exercise 4 - Look at picture 1 (in page 13) and complete the following sentences.
Matter is composed of different kinds of ………structures. These ……… structures are made up of ………
A molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. A molecule consist of two or more ………..
States of matter
There are three main1 states of matter: solid, liquid and gases. Each of these states is also known as a phase. The main differences between these states are shape2 and volume.
Exercise 5 - Read the definition and complete the blanks with the correct word
_______: Is matter with a rigid shape and fixed volume _______: Has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape
_______: Has neither fixed volume nor shape. It expands to fill its container completely.
Exercise 6: Look the next three images and give a title to each one.
Why do atoms bond together?
As we have seen in page 5, an atom consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons with electrons circling this nucleus.
You can break down3 the shell4 and orbitals of an atom on several5 levels of detail. There are the main shells of the atom, and these are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4..etc. Each shell holds different sub-shells, which are themselves composed of atomic orbitals.
What’s an orbital?
Can we know with certainty both where an electron is and where it's going next? According to The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, we can't. That makes it impossible to plot an orbit for an electron around a nucleus.
However, there is a region of space where we can probably find an electron. Such a region of space is called an orbital. You can think of an orbital as being the region of space in which the electron lives.
Now we can try to answer the main question: why do atoms bond together?
Main = Principal
2 Shape = Forma
3 Break down = Romper / descomponer 4
Shell = Capa
16 Atoms are at their most stable when they have no partially-filled electron shells. If an atom has only a few electrons in a shell, it will tend to lose them to empty the shell. (These elements are metals).
When an atom has a nearly full electron shell, it will try to find electrons from another atom so that it can fill its outer shell. (These elements are nonmetals).
So, atoms bond1 together for a very simple reason: atoms “like” to have full valence shells. Why? To get more stable, like noble gases.
Different kind of bond: Ionic bond and Covalent bond.
When metal atoms bond, a metallic bond occurs.
The bond between two nonmetal atoms is usually a covalent bond. Where metal and nonmetal atom come together an ionic bond occurs.
A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms
An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation, which is usually a metal, and an anion, which is usually a nonmetal.
Exercise 7: Answer these questions
What’s a noble gas?
__________________________________________________________________ What’s the main difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?
__________________________________________________________________ How can an atom get more stable?
Lewis structures are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
How does it work?
1. Just write the symbol of an element, for example oxygen
2. The chemical symbol for the atom is surrounded1 by a number of dots2 corresponding to the number of valence electrons.
Your turn: Exercise 8 – Write the Lewis structure for the following elements:
C – Carbon Li – Lithium He – Helium F – Fluorine 1 Surrounded = Rodeado 2 Dots = puntos
The Periodic Table
The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular display of the 118 known chemical elements organized by selected properties of their atomic structures. The elements are placed in specific places because of the way they look and act.
Exercise 9 – Choose 3 different colors to identify metals, metalloids and non-metals in the following periodic table.
The horizontal rows of the table are called periods. Vertical columns are called
Elements of the periodic table
H – Hydrogen Li – Lithium Na – Sodium
K – Potassium Rb – Rubidium Cs – Cesium
Fr – Francium Be – Beryllium Mg – Magnesium
Ca – Calcium Sr – Strontium Ba – Barium
Ra – Radium Sc – Scandium Y – Yttrium
Lu –Lutetium Ac – Actinium Lr – Lawrencium
Ti - Titanium Zr – Zirconium Hf – Hafnium
Rf – Rutherfordium V – Vanadium Ta – Tantalum
Db – Dubnium Cr – Chromium Mo – molybdenum
W – Tungsten Sg – Seaborgium Mn – Manganese
Fe – Iron Ru – Ruthenium Os – Osmium
Hs – Hassium Co – Cobalt Rh – Rhodium
Ir – Iridium Mt – Meitnerium Ni – Nickel
Pd – Palladium Pt – Platinum Ds - Darmstadtium
Cu – Copper Ag – Silver Au – Gold
Rg – Roentgenium Zn – Zinc Cd – Cadmium
Hg – Mercury Cn - Copernicium B – Boron
Al – Aluminum Ga – Gallium In – Indium
Tl – Thallium C – Carbon Si – Silicon
Ge – Germanium Sn – Tin Pb – Lead
N – Nitrogen P – Phosphorus As – Arsenic
Sb – Antimony Bi – Bismuth O – Oxygen
S – Sulfur Se – Selenium Te – Tellurium
Po – Polonium F – Fluoride Cl – Chlorine
Br – Bromine I – Iodine At – Astatine
He – Helium Ne – Neon Ar – Argon
Kr – Krypton Xe – Xenon Rn – Radon
La – Lanthanum Ce – Cerium Th – Thorium
Pr - Praseodymium Pa – Protactinium Nd – Neodymium
U – Uranium Pm – Promethium Np – Neptunium
Sm – Samarium Pu – Plutonium Eu – Europium
Am – Americium Gd – Gadolinium Cm – Curium
Tb – Terbium Bk – Berkelium Dy – Dysprosium
Cf – Californium Ho – Holmium Es – Einstenium
Er – Erbium Fm – Fermium Tm – Thulium
Md – Mendelevium Yb – Ytterbium No – Nobelium Nb – Niobium Uut - Ununtrium Uuq - Ununquadium
A chemical phenomenon is any change in the structure of matter. It happens when a compound is transformed into another with different properties.
Examples of chemical reactions in everyday life 1. Photosynthesis in plants
2. Digestion in our own bodies
3. Decay of any biological matter (from plants to dead animals).
4. Oxidation of various materials exposed to the atmosphere (For example: Iron can rust.)
5. Combusting petrol in a car engine
6. Cooking, souring, fermenting or burning
Thus, it won't be wrong to say learning chemistry and chemical reactions start at home.
Exercise 10 – Write 10 examples of chemical reactions.
1. ……… 2. ……… 3. ………. 4. ………. 5. ……… 6. ……… 7. ……… 8. ……… 9. ………. 10.……….
This is an example of
A chemical reaction takes place1 whenever elements combine to form a compound2. So, a chemical reaction is a change in which reactants3 form new compounds called products4.
Rate5 of reaction:
As you probably know, reactions happens at different speed. Some reactions occurs6 in less than a second while others takes years to happen. The rate of the reaction7 depends on the type of molecules which are combining.
Which things can affect the rate of the reaction?
1. Concentration : more concentration = higher chance that molecules will collide = reaction is speeded up8
2. Temperature: higher temperature = molecules have more energy and bounce9 much more = more molecules will collide10 to combine = reaction is speeded up 3. Pressure: increasing11 pressure (especially in gases) = molecules concentrate
and collide with each other more often
1 Takes place = ocurre 2 Compound = Compuesto 3 Reactants = Reactivos 4 Products = Productos 5 Rate = Velocidad 6
Occurs = sinonimo de “happens”
7 Rate of the reaction = velocidad de reaccion 8
Speeded up = acelerada
Bounce = rebotar / brincar
10 Collide = chocar / encontrarse 11
In the lab
2.Safety in the lab
4.Words relating to lab work
Vocabulary:Container = Contenedor/Recipiente Heated = Calentado Withdraw = Retirar Grind = Moler Hold = mantener/sostener/sujetar Salt bridge = Puente salino
Concern = Referirse Supplies = suministros labels = etiquetas hazard = Peligro/riesgo Avoid = evitar Fanning = abanicar/ventilar spill = vertido/derrame to rinse = enjuagar
Running water = agua corriente Discarding = descartando
Dealing = tratar
– deal with = tratar con
Use: as container1. It can be heated2 Made of: glass
Name: Graduated Cylinder
Use: it’s very useful to measure volume. Made of: glass
Name: Stirring Rod
Use: To stir combinations of materials Made of: glass
Use: To withdraw3 and measure volumes of solutions in titration4 Made of: glass
Container = contenedor / recipiente
2 Heated = Calentado 3 Withdraw = retirar 4
24 Name: Mortar and Pestle
Use: to grind1 chemicals to a powder Made of: heavy porcelain
Name: Volumetric Flask
Use: Used in preparation of solution Made of: glass
Made of: metal, plastic or porcelain
Name: Erlenmeyer flask / conical flask Use:………..
Made of: Glass
Name: Büchner flask, also known as a vacuum2 flask Use:………
Name: Wash bottle
Use: to dispense distilled water Made of: ……….
Grind = Moler / Pulverizar
25 Name: Tongs
Use: To pick up and hold apparatus Made of: Metal
Name: Double buret clamp (with two burets) use: Hold burets when titrating
Made of: ……… with flexible clips
Name: Balance Use: ………
Name: Volumetric flask
Use: marked off to 500ml capacity Made of: glass
Name: Florence flask Use: can be heated Made of: ………..
Name: Bunsen burner Use: heating device Made of: metal
26 Name: Test tubes in rack
Use: Hold test tubes Made of: Plastic or wood
Use: ………. Made of: glass
Name: Funnel Use: ………... Made of: glass
Name: Dropper pipet
Use: to transfer small amounts of liquids
Name: Volumetric Pipet Use: ………. Made of: glass
Name: Evaporating dish Use: ………. Made of: Porcelain
27 Name: U tube
Use: Useful as a "salt bridge" when making batteries Made of: glass
Name: Watch glass Use:
Made of: glass
Use: general purpose condenser that can be used for distillation and extraction
Made of: glass
Name: Separatory Funnel
Use: to separate liquids with different density Made of: glass
Name: Test tube
Use:………. Made of: ……….
Name: Desiccator or desiccant container
Use: is a chamber that removes water from chemicals or items
Name: Petri dish
28 Name: Syringe
Use: hold flask to be heaten Made of: metal
Use: Protect your hands Name: Goggles
Use: to protect your eyes
All the laboratory equipment made of glass are also called laboratory glassware.
Exercise 11 – Group these words under the correct heading
first-aid kit – gloves - Volumetric pipet – burette - safety shower - eye-wash - lab coat – goggles - Beaker
Safety Equipment Protective clothing Glassware
Words relating to Lab work
Give the Spanish translation for the next words. These words may come in handy when describing lab work.
Add = ……….. Check = ……….. Spread = ……….. Splash = ……….. Stir = ……….. Mix = ……….. Melt = ……….. Dry = ……….. Grow = ……….. Titrate = ……….. Swab = ……….. Weight = ……….. Remove = ……….. Heat = ……….. Sample = ……….. Shake = ………..
key for exercise 11:
Safety equipment: first-aid kit, safety shower, eye-wash Protective clothing: lab coat, gloves, goggles
Lab Safety Rules
Safety must be the first concern1 of everyone working in a laboratory. 1. Know the location and use of all safety equipment in your laboratory. (read more
at the next page)
2. Wear a laboratory coat or apron.
3. Wear gloves when dealing with chemicals. 4. Wear closed-toe and closed-heel shoes
5. Wear protective glasses or goggles for all laboratory work. (Wear glasses instead of contacts if possible )
6. Tie back loose hair.
7. Keep your work area clean and organized, free from unnecessary supplies2 and papers.
8. Check chemical 3labels twice to make sure you have the correct substance. Some chemical formulas and names differ by only a letter or number.
9. Pay attention to the hazard4 classifications shown on the label.
10.You may be asked to transfer some laboratory chemicals from a common bottle or jar to your own test tube or beaker. DO NOT return any excess material to its original container.
11.Never taste laboratory materials.
12.Handle equipment carefully and deliberately
13.When using equipment with electrical cords, place the cord out of the way 14.Avoid5 using chipped6 or broken glassware
15.If you are instructed to smell something, do so by fanning7 some of the vapor toward your nose. Do not place your nose near the opening of the container. 16.Never look directly down into a test tube; view the contents from the side. 17.In case of a chemical spill8 on your skin or clothing rinse9 the affected area with
plenty of water. If the eyes are affected water-washing must begin immediately and continue for 10 to 15 minutes or until professional assistance is obtained. 1 Concern = Preocupacion 2 Supplies = Suministros 3 Label = Etiqueta
4 Hazard = Peligro / Riesgo 5 Avoid = Evitar 6 Chipped = Astillado 7 Fanning = Abanicandose 8 Spill = Derrame 9 Rinse = Enjuagar
31 18.Minor skin burns should be placed under cold, running water1.
19.When discarding2 used chemicals, carefully follow the instructions provided. 20.Wash hands after dealing3 chemicals.
21.Do NOT put lab supplies in your mouth.
22.Before leaving the laboratory, ensure that gas lines and water faucets are shut off.
Laboratory Safety Equipment
(including the safety shower, eye wash, first-aid kit, fire extinguisher, and blanket)
Use a safety shower in the event of a chemical spill. How to use:
1. Pull the overhead handle
2. remove clothing that may be contaminated with chemicals 3. Rinse the skin
A fire blanket can be used to smother a fire. How to use:
1. Place the blanket on top, or surrounding a burning object, the job of the blanket is to cut off the oxygen supply to the fire, thereby putting it out
Eye wash fountain
In the event of an eye injury4 or chemical splash, use the eyewash immediately. How to use:
1. Run some water through the eyewash fountain before you use it. 2. Retract your eyelid (hold it open);
3. Run fresh water over your eye for several minutes (from 10 to 15 minutes)
There are two main types of fire extinguishers, carbon dioxide or dry chemical (powder).
How to use:
1. Read the tag to know which you will use. The tag also should show the date the extinguisher was last serviced
2. Carbon dioxide extinguishers are good, general purpose extinguishers. 3. Dry-chemical (powder) are used for difficult cases, say certain types of
4. avoid using a dry-chemical extinguisher on a fellow human being.
1 Running water = Agua corriente 2
Discarding = Descartar / desechar
Dealing = Tratar
First aid kit: First Aid1 kits are available in the lab for minor injuries like cuts or scrapes.
Exits from the lab: Make sure that you know how to exit the lab quickly, in the event of an emergency. You should know two ways to get out.
hazard diagram is widely used to indicate the health, fire, and reactivity of chemicals. It is important to be familiar with this diagram and what the number in each section indicates in regards to the hazard presented by the chemical to which it is referring
Red is FIRE danger: rated on a 0-4 basis. 0 = will not burn
1 = must be preheated to burn 2 = Ignites when moderately heated
3 = Ignites at normal temperatures 4 = Extremely flamable
Yellow indicates REACTIVITY danger: rated on a 0-4 basis 0 = Normally stable
1 = Unstable if heated: use normal precautions
2 = Violent chemical change possible: use hose streams from distance
3 = Strong shock or heat may detonate: use monitors from behind explosive resistant barriers
4 = May detonate: vacate area if materials are exposed to fire Blue represents HEALTH HAZARDS: rated on a 0-4 basis
0 = Like ordinary material 1 = Slightly hazardous
2 = hazardous: use breathing apparatus
3= Extremely dangerous: use full protecting clothing 4 = Too dangerous to enter vapor or liquid
WHITE signifies specific hazards, e.g. oxidizers, acids, bases, or corrosive materials.
Chemical manufacturers are required to perform an assessment of the physical and health hazards of the chemicals they produce. This information must be made
available in two places: the chemical label and the material safety data sheet (MSDS). Thus, the information found on the original container label and the MSDS may provide a great deal of information about the identity of the chemical constituents and their health and physical hazards
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
•When a chemical is purchased, the supplier will send a MSDS sheet. •The MSDS sheet lists the known dangers of the chemical in question.
•Make sure you use the right MSDS sheet for the right chemical, as many chemical names sound similar.
You can find more info on:
Exercise 12: Decide whether these statements are true or false
When in the laboratory you should wear sandals
When in the laboratory you should wear closed-toed shoes If acid gets on your skin or clothes, wash at once with water
You must wear your goggles in the laboratory to improve your vision Never heat a test tube that is closed
Methods of separating mixtures and purifying substances Filtration
is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids
Distillation is used to separate two liquids that are miscible (miscible: liquids that completely mix and don’t form two layers1)
Is the way of separating a liquid from an insoluble solid which has a density greater than water. The mixture is allowed to stand e.g. in a beaker, until all the solid settles out to the bottom of the container. Then the liquid is carefully poured off2 to leave the insoluble solid behind.
is the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the "mobile phase", which carries3 it through a structure holding another material called the "stationary phase". The various
constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to separate. The separation is based on differential partitioning4 between the mobile and stationary phases. Subtle5 differences in a compound's partition coefficient result in differential retention on the stationary phase and thus changing the separation.
Exercise 13 – Try to describe others Methods of separating mixtures and purifying substances
TLC – Thin Layer Chromatography :
____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________
How can we separate two liquids that do not mix?
1 Layers = Capas 2
Poured off = Vertir Fuera
Carries = Lleva
Partitioning = Particionamiento
- traditional naming of inorganic compounds - IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds - IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds
2.List of common ions names
3.Organic compounds list containing a few types of organic molecules
Write below your own vocabulary list.
___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Traditional naming of inorganic compounds
La primera palabra señala alguna característica general a un grupo grande de sustancias, por ejemplo: acido, hidróxido, etc. La segunda palabra señala la característica especial que permite distinguir la especie química:
1. Oxido de + nombre del metal 2. Oxido metal+ico
To name oxides according to the traditional nomenclature1 you need to learn a little system of prefixes and suffixes for the oxidation numbers.
If the metal has one oxidation number there isn’t a suffix to use. (some people use –ic suffix)
If it has two oxidation numbers you have to choose a suffix according the oxidation number.
With the smaller number you should use –ous, and –ic with the bigger number.
Be careful: Suffix2 does not depend on the number, but on how many valences3 the element has.
Writing structure of traditional nomenclature:
Manganic Oxide Ferric Oxide 1 Nomenclature = Nomenclatura 2 Suffix = Sufijo 3 Valences = Valencias
Hydroxides1 has this writing structure:
You need to use a suffix like in oxide nomenclature (-ic or - -ous) Writing structure of traditional nomenclature:
Example: Ferric Hydroxide
Acids are formed when Non-Metal Oxides (also known as anhydrides) react2 with water
You need to learn a little system of prefixes3 and suffixes (for the oxidation numbers)
Hyp……..ous -ous -ic Per……..ic
+2 +4 +6
+1 +3 +5 +7
the suffix does not depend on the number but on how many valences the element has
Writing structure of traditional nomenclature: ElementName + Suffix Acid
Or, when needed:
Prefix + ElementName + Suffix Acid
Examples: Hypochlorous acid Chlorous acid Chloric Acid Perchloric acid 1 Hydroxides = Hidroxidos 2 React = Reaccionar 3 Prefixes = Prefijos
39 IUPAC and STOCK nomenclature in acids is not used frequently, as it is a bit difficult and general chemical compound markets in the most part use only the TRADITIONAL nomenclature.
The name of a salt starts with the name of the cation (e.g. sodium or ammonium) followed by the name of the anion (e.g. chloride or acetate). Salts are often referred to only by the name of the cation (e.g. sodium salt or ammonium salt) or by the name of the anion (e.g. chloride or acetate).
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds
You need to learn the following prefixes:
Number Prefixes 1 -mono 2 -di 3 -tri 4 -tetra 5 -penta 6 -hexa 7 -hepta 8 -octa 9 -nona 10 -deca
the writing structure of IUPAC nomenclature is:
Prefix ElementName + Prefix + Hydroxide/oxyde
if the metal has a subscript1 of one, we don’t use MONO, we only use MONO if the radical OH has 1 as subscript
The name of the electronegative constituent is constructed by modifying the element name with the ending
1. HCl hydrogen chloride
2. NO nitrogen oxide, or nitrogen monooxide, or nitrogen monoxide 3. NO2 nitrogen dioxide
4. N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide 5. OCl2 oxygen dichloride 6. O2Cl dioxygen chloride 7. Fe3O4 triiron tetraoxide 8. SiC silicon carbide
41 Naming cations
The name of a monoatomic cation is that of the element with an appropriate charge number appended1 in parentheses.
The name of a monoatomic anion is the element name (Table I) modified so as to carry the anion designator ‘ide’, either formed by replacing the ending of the element name (‘en’,‘ese’, ‘ic’, ‘ine’, ‘ium’, ‘ogen’, ‘on’, ‘orus’, ‘um’, ‘ur’, ‘y’ or ‘ygen’) by ‘ide’ or by directly adding ‘ide’ as an ending to the element name.
El nombre de un anion monoatomico es el nombre del elemento (ver table 1) modificado en modo que pueda llevar el sufijo “ide” relativo al anion. Se forma remplazando el final del nombre del elemento (‘en’,‘ese’, ‘ic’, ‘ine’, ‘ium’, ‘ogen’, ‘on’, ‘orus’, ‘um’, ‘ur’, ‘y’ or ‘ygen’) con “ide” o directamente agregando “ide” al final del nombre del elemento.
1. chlorine, chloride
2. carbon, carbide
3. xenon, xenonide
4. tungsten, tungstide
5. bismuth, bismuthide
The endings in anion names are ‘ide’ (monoatomic or homopolyatomic species, heteropolyatomic species named from a parent hydride), ‘ate’ (heteropolyatomic species named additively2), and ‘ite’ (used in a few names which are still acceptable but do not derive from current systematic nomenclature)
Some names of monoatomic anions are based on the root of the Latin element names. In these the ending ‘um’ or ‘ium’ is replaced by ‘ide’.
1. silver, argentum, argentide 2. gold, aurum, auride
3. copper, cuprum, cupride 4. iron, ferrum, ferride 5. lead, plumbum, plumbide 6. tin, stannum, stannide
Appended = Adjunto / Añadido
List of common ion names
Monatomic anions: Cl− chloride S2− sulfide P3− phosphide Polyatomic ions: NH4+ ammonium H3O+ hydronium NO3− nitrate NO2− nitrite ClO− hypochlorite ClO2− chlorite ClO3− chlorate ClO4− perchlorate SO32− sulfite SO42− sulfate
HSO3− hydrogen sulfite (or bisulfite)
HCO3− hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate) CO32− carbonate
HPO42− hydrogen phosphate CrO42− chromate BO33− borate C2O42− oxalate CN− cyanide SCN− thiocyanate MnO4− permanganate
IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds
In order to name organic compounds you must first memorize a few basic names. These names are listed within the discussion of naming alkanes1. In general, the base part of the name reflects the number of carbons in what you have assigned to be the
parent chain. The suffix of the name reflects the type(s) of functional group(s)
present on (or within) the parent chain. Other groups which are attached to the parent chain are called substituents.
Alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons)
names of the straight chain saturated hydrocarbons for up to a 12 carbon chain
El sufijo –ano utilizado para los alcanos en español corresponde al –ane en inglés. Name Number of carbons
Methane 1 Ethane 2 Propane 3 Butane 4 Pentane 5 Hexane 6 Heptane 7 Octane 8 Nonane 9 Decane 10 Undecane 11 Dodecane 12
The names of the substituents formed by the removal of one hydrogen from the end of the chain is obtained by changing the suffix -ane to -yl.
Isobutyl Tert-butyl Sec-butyl Isopropyl
A cyclic (ring) hydrocarbon is designated by the prefix cyclo- which appears directly in front of the base name
Commas are used between numbers and dashes2 are used between letters and numbers
Alkanes = Alcanos
4-ethyl-3,3-dimethylheptane Alkyl halides
You need to use the prefix Fluoro- Chloro- Bromo- Iodo- Example: 2-bromo-3-methylbutane
Alkenes and Alkynes - unsaturated hydrocarbons
Double bonds1 in hydrocarbons are indicated by replacing the suffix -ane with -ene. If there is more than one double bond, the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of double bonds present (-adiene, -atriene, etc)
Triple bonds are named in a similar way using the suffix -yne. Alcohols
Alcohols are named by replacing the suffix -ane with -anol. If there is more than one hydroxyl group2 (-OH), the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of hydroxyl groups present (-anediol, -anetriol, etc.).
The two alkyl groups3 attached to the oxygen are put in alphabetical order with spaces between the names and they are followed by the word ether. The prefix di- is used if both alkyl groups are the same.
Double Bond = Enlace Doble
Hydroxyl group = Grupo Hidroxilo
Aldehydes are named by replacing the suffix -ane with –anal Ketones
Ketones are named by replacing the suffix -ane with -anone. If there is more than one carbonyl group (C=O), the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of carbonyl groups present (-anedione, -anetrione, etc.).
Carboxylic acids are named by counting the number of carbons in the longest
continuous chain including the carboxyl group and by replacing the suffix -ane of the corresponding alkane with -anoic acid
The alkyl group is named like a substituent using the -yl ending. This is followed by a space. The acyl portion of the name (what is left over) is named by replacing the -ic
acid suffix of the corresponding carboxylic acid with -ate. Example:
They are named like ethers, the alkyl (R) groups attached to the nitrogen are put in alphabetical order with no spaces between the names and these are followed by the word amine
Organic compounds list containing a few types of organic
molecules Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Alcohols Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic acids Amines Amides Nitrites Nitrates Amino acids Haloalkanes Acyl/acid chlorides Cycloalkanes Cycloalkenes Annulenes Sulfides Sulfates Hydrochlorides Esters Ethers Sugars Cyanates Isocyanates Cyanides Cyanohydrins Fullerenes Phenols
Phenyls and benzyls
Exercise: Name these compounds K2O Fe2O3 Na2O NaOH Al(OH)3 CuOH
Vocabulary:Harm = Daño
Adverse effect = Efecto negativo Fossil Fuels = combustibles fosiles Sewage = Aguas Residuales
Household sewage = Aguas residuals del hogar Sludge = lodo/sediment fangoso
Is the introduction of pollutants1 (contaminants) into a natural environment2 that causes instability, disorder, harm3 or discomfort4 to the ecosystem5. Pollution6 can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise7, heat8 or light. What is acid rain?
Acid rain9 is a precipitation10 having an acid pH value which has an adverse effect11 on animals and plants on which it falls. Acid rains results from the emission into the atmosphere of various pollutant gases which originate from the burning of fossil fuels and from car exhaust fumes.
Exercise: Try to describe what is air pollution and what is the ozone layer. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 1 Pollutants = Contaminantes 2 Environment = Ambiente 3 Harm = Daño 4 Discomfort = Malestar 5 Ecosystem = Ecosistema 6 Pollution = contaminacion 7 Noise = Ruido 8 Heat = Calor 9
Acid Rain = Lluvia Acida
Precipitation = Precipitacion
The lexicon of environmental damage
Acid rain – lluvia acida
Climate change – cambio climatico Deforestation - deforestacion
Ground pollution – contaminacion del suelo
Ozone depletion – Reduccion de la capa de ozono
Waste of resources – derroche/despilfarro de recursos naturales. Greenhouse efecto – Efecto invernadero
Ozone layer – Capa de ozono Adverse – Dañino Harmful – Nocivo/Perjudicial Harmless – Inofensivo/inocuo Warming – calentamiento Noxious – Harmful/toxic Hazard – Risk Rise – increment
Endanger – poner en peligro Amount – cantidad
Sewage1 treatment, or domestic wastewater2 treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage3, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe4 fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge5) suitable6 for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer).
A typical sewage treatment process:
1.Separate and dispose of grosser debris7 (large solids, rags, plastics)
2.Grit removal (grit, stones, sand)
3.Primary sedimentation (in which primary sludge is obtained)
4.Biological treatment (in which secondary –biological- sludge is obtained)
5.Tertiary treatment (tertiary sludge is obtained)
Exercise: Which are the main advantages obtained by treating wastewater? For example: Quality improvement of streams.
1 Sewage = Aguas residuales / Aguas servidas 2
Wastewater = Aguas residuales
Household sewage = Aguas residuales de los hogares
4 Environmentally-safe = Ambientalmente seguro/a 5
Sludge = Lodo / Fango
Suitable = Adecuado / apto / idoneo
1.Basics of P&ID
2.Common P&ID symbols used in developing Instrumentation Diagrams
3.Symbols for process equipment
4.Unit of measurement Vocabulary: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
Basics of Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams
P&ID stands for Piping1 and Instrumentation Diagram or Drawing. Alternatively, it could also be called Process and Instrumentation Diagram or simply P&I diagram or drawing. P&IDs are also known as Engineering Flow Diagrams or Mechanical Flow Diagrams .P&IDs are often used in the process industry to show the process flow and other installed equipment and instruments. They show the interconnection of process equipment and the instrumentation used to control the process.
Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams play a crucial role in the design and engineering of process plants and piping systems. P&IDs are schematic diagrams that contain engineering and design details of the process plants.
A P&ID is a working document that is used by every discipline involved in the design, engineering and construction of process plants. It is used as a Process Plant Layout and Piping Design reference for checking engineering and design documents and drawings associated with a project.
Common P&ID symbols used in Developing Instrumentation
Diagrams -Instrument Indentifiers
PC = Pressure2 controller PI =Pressure Indicator PR = Pressure recorder
PIC = Pressure indicating controller PRC = Pressure recording controller PSV = Pressure safety valve
RV = Relief valve3 LA = Level alarm
LAH = Level alarm high LAL = Level alarm low LI = Level indicator
LRC = Level recording cotroller FA = Flow4 alarm
FE = Flow element FI = Flow indicator FR = Flow recorder
FRC = Flow recording controller TA = Temperature alarm
TI = Temperature Indicator TR = Temperature recorder
TRC = Temperature recorder controller TW = temperature well 1 Piping = Tuberias 2 Pressure = Presion 3
Relieve valve = Valvula de alivio / seguridad
Symbols for Process Equipment
Shell-and-tube heat exchanger
Jacketed vessel Generic Valve Glove valve Butterfly valve Ball valve Gate valve Angle valve
Three way valve
Vessel = Contenedor / tanque / recipiente
Pump = bomba
Units of measurement
Exercise: Using a dictionary try to translate these unit of measurement
Millimeter Centimeter Decimeter Meter Kilometer Miles Foot yard inch cubit parsecs light years square meter hectare Degrees of Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit kilogram metric ton cubic meter hectoliter
imperial gallon liquid US gallon liquid US gallon dry barrel
How to write a resume?
1.Learn to write a resume.
Vocabulary: Advertisement = Anuncio/Publicidad Highlight = Destacar Achievements = Logros Skills = Habilidades Duties = Funciones/deberes Accomplishments = Logros/realizaciones Honed = Perfeccionado
Writing a resume
A resume is an advertisement about you. It should highlight how your skills,
experience, and achievements match to the requirements of the job you want to get. What you include on your resume and how you organize your information will be different for each job.
1.Write your personal information: name, surname, phone number,
email, address, etc.
2.Decide in what combination you will list your education, work history,
and other achievements. Your best qualities should be listed first
3.List your employment history. This can be done in one of two ways:
a. If your work history includes positions in more than one field, you should list your jobs under functional sub-headings, which categorize the skills you used at each particular one. When listing your employment history in this manner, each sub-heading should contain a listing of the positions you’ve held that relate to those functional areas. The listing should include the name and location of the employer, a description of your duties and responsibilities, the dates you were employed, and any accomplishments or achievements at that particular job.
b. If you can demonstrate that your evolving work history highlights the key skills you want to promote, you may want to list your work history in reverse chronological order, without including any sub-headings. Instead of the subheadings, you could strategically select the way you word your descriptions of your roles and responsibilities to highlight how you honed those skills.
4.Provide information about your education. The details you include about
your education will be the same as the details you’d include in other resume styles; the difference is in where you present the information on the resume.
5.Provide information on your skills, awards, and achievements. This can
be blocked into one section, or they can be distributed within the sub-headings of your resume that highlight specific skills.
6.Format your resume. Some guidelines to follow when formatting your
a. Set your margins to 1” all the way around.
b. Use a standard font such as Arial or Times New Roman.
c. Use font size 16 for your name, 14 for section headings, and 12 for all other text.
d. Use bold font for your name and section headings.
e. Use plenty of white space (blank lines). The proper use of white space will make your resume easy to scan quickly and much easier to read. f. Always use white paper and black font.
Ablation = Ablación
Absolute error = Error absoluto Absolute zero = Cero absoluto
Absorption spectrum = Espectro de absorción Accuracy = Precisión
Acid = Acido
Acid rain = Lluvia acida
Activation energy = energía de activación Active transport = Transporte activo Addition reaction = reacción de adicción Adhesive forces = fuerzas de adhesión Aerobic = aeróbico
Aerobic respiration = respiración aeróbica Affinity = Afinidad
Air pollution = Contaminación del aire
Air quality assessment = Evaluación de la calidad del aire Alchemy = Alquimia
Amorphus solid = Solido amorfo
Angular momentum quantum number = Numero cuántico del momento angular Antimatter = Antimateria
Archimedes Principle = Principio de Arquímedes Atmosphere = Atmosfera
Avogadro’s Law = Ley de Avogadro
Backscattering = Retro dispersión Binary Acid = Acido binario
Binary Compound = Compuesto binario Biodegradability = Biodegradabilidad Boiling Point = Punto de ebullición Bond Energy = Energía de enlace
Calorie = Calorías
Calorimeter = calorímetro Capillary = Capilar
Carcinogen = carcinógeno / cancerígeno Carrier gas = Gas de transporte
Catode ray tube = Tubo de rayos catódicos Centripetal force = fuerza centrípeta
Chain reaction = Reacción en cadena Chemical bonds = Enlaces químicos
Chemical change = transformación química Chemical equation = Ecuación química Chemical equilibrium = Equilibrio químico Chemical kinetics = cinética química Chemistry = Química
60 Coenzyme = Coenzima
Cohesive forces = Fuerzas de cohesión Coke = Coque
Colligative Propierties = Propiedades coligativas Collision theory = Teoría de las colisiones Colloid = Coloide
Complex ions = Iones complejos Compound = Compuesto
Compressed gas = Gas comprimido
Compression factor = Factor de compresión Concentration = Concentración
Condensation = Condensación
Condensed Phases = Fases condensadas
Conjugate acid-base pair = par conjugado ácido – base Coordination = Coordinación
Covalent bond = enlace covalente
Covalent compounds = Compuestos covalentes Critical point = Punto critico
Cryoscopy constant = Constante crioscopica Crystallization = Cristalización
Deflagration = Deflagración Degeneracy = Degeneración Delocalization = Deslocalización
61 Denaturation = Desnaturalización
Density = Densidad
Depolarization Factor = Factor de despolarización Diamagnetic = Diamagnético
Diamond = Diamante
Diastereotopic = diastereotópicos Diathermic = Diatérmico
Dilution = Disolución
Dipole – dipole interactions = Interacciones dipolo-dipolo Dipole moment = Momento dipolar
Dissociation = Disociación Distillation = Destilación Distortion = Distorsión Double bond = Enlace doble Drug = Droga/fármaco Ductility = Ductilidad
Dynamic Equilibrium = Equilibrio dinámico
Ebullioscopic constant = Constante ebulloscópica Efficacy = Eficacia
Elastic Deformation = Deformación elástica Electrical conductivity = Conductibilidad eléctrica Electrolysis = Electrolisis
62 Electron affinity = Afinidad electrónica
Electronegativity = Electronegatividad
Electronic Transition = Transición electrónica Electrophile = Electrófilo
Electrophoresis = Electroforesis Electrostatics = Electroestática Element = Elemento
Eluant (or eluent) = eluyente
Emission spectrum = Espectro de emisión Emulsifying agent = Agente emulsionante Enantiomer = Enantiomero Endothermic = Endotérmico Energy = Energía Enthalpy = Entalpia Entropy = Entropía Enzyme = Enzima
Equilibrium (or chemical equilibrium) = Equilibrio (o equilibrio químico) Essential oil = Aceite esencial
Eutectic temperatura = temperatura eutéctica Evaporation = Evaporación
Excited state = Estado Excitado Exothermic = Exotérmico
Extensive property = Propiedad extensiva Extrapolate = Extrapolar
Fatty acid = Ácido graso Fermentation = Fermentación Filtration = Filtración
Fire = Fuego
Flame test = ensayo de la llama Flammable = Inflamable
Fractional distillation = Destilación fraccionada Free radical = Radicales libres
Freezing point = punto de congelación
Galvanic cell = Celda galvánica
Gamma Radiation = Radiación gamma Glass = vidrio
Greenhouse gas = Gas de invernadero Greenhouse effect = Efecto invernadero
Heat = calentar
Heat capacity = Capacidad calorífica Heavy metal = metal pesado
64 Heterogeneous = heterogéneo Homogeneous = Homogéneo Hybrid = Hibrido Hydrophobic = hidrófobo Hygroscopic = Higroscópico Hypothesis = hipótesis
Ideal gas = gas ideal Immiscible = inmiscible Indicator = Indicador Infrared = infrarrojo Inhibitor = inhibidor
Inorganic chemistry = química inorgánica Insecticide = Insecticida
Insoluble = insoluble
Intensive property = Propiedad intensiva Intrinsic property = propiedad intrínseca Isotopes = isotopos
Kinetic = cinética