Curso de Ingles Tecnico Para Quimica

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INGLÉS TÉCNICO

PARA QUIMICOS

Curso de Inglés específico para químicos o profesionales (o estudiantes) en el campo de la química

Aprende a :

1. Comunicar utilizando términos técnicos específicos de la materia 2. Entender y redactar artículos científicos

3. Aprende a escribir tu curriculum en inglés, expande tus horizontes 4. Descubre las otras ventajas …

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Presentación

Este libro está dirigido en particular a estudiantes o profesionales del sector químico en general.

El objetivo de este libro es promover el aprendizaje de modo activo, por lo que proponemos textos técnicos y científicos para aprender de modo simple y eficaz.

Para un mejor provecho del contenido de este curso se recomienda poseer conocimientos básicos de inglés general antes de afrontar el inglés técnico especifico.

Objetivos

El objetivo principal es que usted, al final de este curso logre:

1. Leer y comprender textos de carácter técnico o científico que presenten términos, expresiones o estructuras sintácticas características de las ciencias químicas y ciencias afines.

2. Mejorar la capacidad de producción escrita y de comprensión de textos técnicos de carácter científico

3. El libro propone diferentes argumentos científicos divididos por capítulos y cuenta con ejercicios. 4. Ampliar el propio vocabulario relativo al mundo de la química en general

5. Escribir el propio currículo vitae en inglés

6. Dominar una valida herramienta para afrontar el mercado laboral cada vez más competitivo.

Estructura del curso:

Introducción: Survival english - Inglés general básico

Laboratory equipment and lab work + Safety in the laboratory

Introducing chemistry: Matter, Branches of chemistry, The periodic table, Chemical reactions. Chemical Compounds: Nomenclature

Environmental damage Industrial Chemistry

How to write a resume that generates results Improving your English

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Index

Remembering numbers Page 5

Definition of atom Page 6

Atomic number Page 7

Temperature Page 8

Chemistry of colours Page 9

The pH scale Page 10

Tips on studying a foreign language Page 11

What is chemistry? Page 12

Building blocks of matter Page 14

States of matter Page 15 – 16

Lewis structure Page 17

The Periodic Table Page 18 – 19

Chemical Phenomenon Page 20

Chemical Reactions Page 21

Laboratory equipment Page 23 – 28

Words relating to lab work Page 29

Lab Safety Rules Page 30

Laboratory Safety equipment Page 31

Hazard Diagrams Page 32

Chemical Labels Page 33

Lab work Page 35

Traditional naming of inorganic compounds Page 37 – 39 IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds Page 40 – 41

List of common ion names Page 42

IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds Page 43 – 45 Organic compounds list containing a few types of organic molecules P. 46

Pollution Page 49

The lexicon of environmental damage Page 50

Sewage treatment Page 51

Basics of piping & Instrumentation Diagrams Page 53

Symbols for process equipment Page 54

Units of measurement Page 55

Writing a resume Page 57

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Refreshing your English

Unit 1

target: Refresh your english

1.

Remembering Numbers

- The atomic number, Temperature

2.

Remembering colors, the pH scale

3.

Tips on studying a foreign language

4.

Steps to write a summary

Vocabulary: Atom = Atomo Structure = Estructura Protons = Protones Neutrons = Neutrones Elements = Elementos Nucleus = Nucleo Scales = Escalas

Measurement = Medicion / to measure = medir To absorb = absorber

Due to = debido a…

Discoveries = descubrimientos Theoretical = teorico

Chemical phenomena = Fenomeno Quimico Matter = Materia Shape = Forma Bond = Enlace Surrounded = Rodeado Shape = Forma Bond = Enlace Surrounded = Rodeado

Takes place = Tener lugar (ocurrir) To Combine = Combinar

Compound = Compuesto Reactants = Reactivos Products = Productos Mean = Medio

Made of = Hecho/a de/por….

En esta primera unidad podrás encontrar algunas frases escritas en español. A partir de la unidad 2 se usará principalmente el inglés para que te

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Remembering Numbers

1. One 2. Two 3. Three 4. Four 5. Five 6. Six 7. Seven 8. Eight 9. Nine 10.Ten 11.Eleven 12.Twelve 13.Thirteen 14.Fourteen 15.Fifteen 16.Sixteen 17.Seventeen 18.Eighteen 19.Nineteen 20.Twenty 21.Twenty-one ….etc 30. Thirty 40. Forty 50. Fifty 60. Sixty 70. Seventy 80. Eighty 90. Ninety

100. One hundred (a hundred) 101. One hundred and one…etc 200. Two hundred…etc

1000. One thousand (a thousand) 2001. Two thousand and one 1.000.000 One million

Los números que van desde 21 a 99 se escriben con un guion “-“ entre la decena y la unidad (example: 21 = twenty-one)

En british english (inglés británico) para los números mayores de 100 se usa and entre las centenas y el resto del número (example: 210 = two hundred and ten ; en inglés americano (American english) se dice two hundred ten (sin and)

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6 Hundred, thousand, million se escriben sin la s del plural, excepto cuando son usados como expresiones indefinidas. (example: hundreds of dollars = centenares de dólares) los números grandes se escriben con comas, no con puntos y los números con decimales se escriben con puntos no con comas. Los números

decimales después de la coma se leen singularmente (example: 86,512 eighty-six

point five one two) Notar que el point indica que los números que expresaré

después son decimales.

Numeros ordinales

Numero Abreviación En español

First 1st Primero Second 2nd Segundo Third 3rd Tercero Fourth 4th Cuarto Fifth 5th Quinto Sixth 6th Sexto Seventh 7th Séptimo Eighth 8th Octavo Nineth 9th Noveno tenth 10th Décimo

A todos los números se les agrega la terminación –th, menos a los que terminan en 1, 2 o 3 (después del 20), a los que se agrega, -st, -nd, -rd, respectivamente. Example: Twenty-first (21st), twenty-second (22nd), twenty-third (23rd)

Definition of atom

Do you ever wonder what’s an atom?

All objects surrounding1 us are made of2 matter3. Air, water, a brick, even4 you are made of matter! Matter is anything that has mass. Matter is made up5 of smaller pieces; atoms.

An atom is the defining structure of an element, which cannot be broken by any chemical means6. An atom consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons with electrons circling7 this nucleus.

1

Surrounding = que rodea/rodeando

2 Made of = hecho de/ compuesto por 3

Matter = materia

4

Even = hasta / incluso / aun

5 Made up = sinonimo de “made of” 6

Chemical means = medios quimicos/metodos quimicos

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Atomic Number

The atomic number is the number of protons in an element. the number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons.

Prueba tu: Intenta traducir los párrafos anteriores (definition of atom and Atomic

number) al español. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Numbers and temperature

There are many scales1 of temperature: Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin. The most commonly2 used is Celsius. In U.S.A is mostly3 used the Fahrenheit scale.

For practical purposes of scientific temperature measurement4, the International System of Units (SI) defines a scale and unit for the thermodynamic temperature: Kelvin, which the unit symbol is K. Grados (Spanish) = Degrees (English)

Unit conversions

Fahrenheit = Celsius * 9 / 5 + 32 Celsius = (Fahrenheit - 32) * 5 / 9 Kelvin = Celsius + 273.15

Exercise 1 - Try to complete the blanks with: 296,15 - 89,6 – 1.85 - 51,6

32 oC ________ F 125 F ________ oC 23 oC ________ K 275 K ________ oC 1 Scales = Escalas 2 Commonly = Comunmente 3 Mostly = Mayormente 4

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Chemistry of colours

Every day materials we use presents many different colors. But why things have

color? Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation and delivers1 energy in little packets called photons. All materials absorb photons of some energy, but only substances2 that absorb photons of visible radiations will have color. The color of a transparent object is due to3 the colors of light that can pass through4 the material. The color of any colored object comes from the light it doesn’t absorb. The color absorbed

determines the color observed.

Color absorbed Color observed

Red Blue green

Orange Blue

Yellow green Violet

Blue violet Yellow

Remembering the colours

-

Exercise 2 - match the color with the correct name

Green

Yellow

Blue

Brown

Red

Pink

Light blue

Violet

White

Black

Orange

Try to do this exercise without looking at the solutions at the end of the next page.

1 Deliver = Llevar 2

Substances = Sustancias

3

Due to = Debido a…

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The pH scale

What is Acid? There are three common1 definitions for acids: the Arrhenius definition, the Brønsted-Lowry definition, and the Lewis definition. A Lewis acid is a species that

accepts a pair of electrons from another species; in other words, it is an electron pair acceptor

What is base? A base is a chemical species that donates

electrons or hydroxide ions or that accepts protons.

The pH scale measures2 how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A pH greater than 7 is basic.

An indicator is usually some weak3 organic acid or base dye4 that changes colors5 at definite pH values.

One of the oldest and most commonly used forms of pH indicator is the litmus

paper. Litmus paper is paper that has been treated6 with a specific indicator - a

mixture of 10-15 natural dyes obtained from lichens that changes colors at definite pH values.

Colors in a pH indicator

0 – Red

1 – Orange Red

2 – Dark orange

3 – Orange

4 – Tan

5 – Sun Yellow

6 – Lemon Yellow

7 – Yellow green

8 – Olive drab

9 – Asparagus

10 – Dark sea green

11- Royal blue

12 – Dark slate blue 13 – Ultramarine

14 - Navy blue

1

Common = Comun / General

2 Measures = Mide 3

Weak = Débil

4

Dye = Tinte / Tinta / Tintura 5

Color = In American (USA) English we write “color”, in british English “colour” but the meaning is the same.

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11 Important! : key for exercise 2 (Chemistry of colors): Page 9

Tips on studying a foreign Language

 Study every day

 Isolate new vocabulary and study it separately

 Avoid word-by-word translation.

 Read many times a new passage trying to guess the meaning of a new

word from context.

 Check word endings

 Memorize irregular verbs

 Practice: read and listen, watch foreign TV, read news in English

 Stay up-to-date, read, listen, speak, as frequently as possible.

Try to write a summary of what you’ve learned in this unit

Steps to write a summary

1. Read the passage twice

2. try to understand the passage

3. Find out exactly what you need to summarize 4. Identify the main idea.

5. Write your first draft. Then edit your first draft. 6. Make a list of the new words you've learned

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________

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Understanding Chemistry

Unit 2

Target:

1.

Introducing chemistry

2.

States of Matter

3.

Atoms and molecules

4.

The periodic table

5.

Chemical reactions Vocabulary: Atom = Atomo Structure = Estructura Protons = Protones Neutrons = Neutrones Elements = Elementos Nucleus = Nucleo Scales = Escalas

Measurement = Medicion / to measure = medir To absorb = absorber

Due to = debido a…

Discoveries = descubrimientos Theoretical = teorico

Chemical phenomena = Fenomeno Quimico Matter = Materia Shape = Forma Bond = Enlace Surrounded = Rodeado Shape = Forma Bond = Enlace Surrounded = Rodeado

Takes place = Tener lugar (ocurrir) To Combine = Combinar

Compound = Compuesto Reactants = Reactivos Products = Productos

:

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What is Chemistry?

Chemistry is an experimental science. Chemistry is evidence based. All chemical statements1 are based on experiment. It shares2 the experimental method of all sciences. It improves in time also using new discoveries3 and concepts from other sciences.

In turn, it provides both theoretical and experimental tools to different sciences. Biology, Geology cannot be studied without a thorough4 understanding of chemical phenomena.

Chemistry is the study of matter and changes that take place with that matter.

Branches of Chemistry

Find the words that describes the branches of chemistry

I N O R G A N I C R T Q R Y G A R R Y X C P H I S Y J L F Y G W E R T Y E J K L O W W X A P O Z L I M X R E N E F I N D U S T R I A L X U Y O R I T Y E W Q S E R T C H L I C A N A L Y T I C A L H X C F G G E N E R A L Y E V N T Y U R F P H Y S I C A L B I O C H E M I S T R Y R O

Inorganic – organic – industrial – analytical – general – physical – nuclear – chemistry - biochemistry

Exercise 3 - Fill in the blanks with the words you’ve found.

The branch of chemistry that studies compounds of carbon is ……… Application of chemistry to manufacturing processes: ……… The branch of chemistry that studies compounds excluding those of carbon is ……….studies radioactivity, fission and fusion of nuclei ……….studies molecules and their transformation

1 Statement = Declaracion / Afirmacion 2

Shares = Comparte

3

Discoveries = Descubrimientos

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Biochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies chemical processes in living

things

The determination of the composition of substances are studied in ………..

Application of mathematics and physics to chemistry: Physical chemistry

The building blocks of matter

Picture 1

Matter is everything around us that we can touch, or see, or feel, or smell. Remember the definition of matter.

Matter: is anything that takes up space or has a mass of any kind.

Exercise 4 - Look at picture 1 (in page 13) and complete the following sentences.

Matter is composed of different kinds of ………structures. These ……… structures are made up of ………

A molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. A molecule consist of two or more ………..

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States of matter

There are three main1 states of matter: solid, liquid and gases. Each of these states is also known as a phase. The main differences between these states are shape2 and volume.

Exercise 5 - Read the definition and complete the blanks with the correct word

_______: Is matter with a rigid shape and fixed volume _______: Has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape

_______: Has neither fixed volume nor shape. It expands to fill its container completely.

Exercise 6: Look the next three images and give a title to each one.

Picture 2

Why do atoms bond together?

As we have seen in page 5, an atom consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons with electrons circling this nucleus.

You can break down3 the shell4 and orbitals of an atom on several5 levels of detail. There are the main shells of the atom, and these are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4..etc. Each shell holds different sub-shells, which are themselves composed of atomic orbitals.

What’s an orbital?

Can we know with certainty both where an electron is and where it's going next? According to The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, we can't. That makes it impossible to plot an orbit for an electron around a nucleus.

However, there is a region of space where we can probably find an electron. Such a region of space is called an orbital. You can think of an orbital as being the region of space in which the electron lives.

Now we can try to answer the main question: why do atoms bond together?

1

Main = Principal

2 Shape = Forma

3 Break down = Romper / descomponer 4

Shell = Capa

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16 Atoms are at their most stable when they have no partially-filled electron shells. If an atom has only a few electrons in a shell, it will tend to lose them to empty the shell. (These elements are metals).

When an atom has a nearly full electron shell, it will try to find electrons from another atom so that it can fill its outer shell. (These elements are nonmetals).

So, atoms bond1 together for a very simple reason: atoms “like” to have full valence shells. Why? To get more stable, like noble gases.

Different kind of bond: Ionic bond and Covalent bond.

When metal atoms bond, a metallic bond occurs.

The bond between two nonmetal atoms is usually a covalent bond. Where metal and nonmetal atom come together an ionic bond occurs.

Covalent bond

A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms

Ionic bond

An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation, which is usually a metal, and an anion, which is usually a nonmetal.

Exercise 7: Answer these questions

What’s a noble gas?

__________________________________________________________________ What’s the main difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?

__________________________________________________________________ How can an atom get more stable?

__________________________________________________________________

1

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Lewis Structure

Lewis structures are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.

How does it work?

1. Just write the symbol of an element, for example oxygen

2. The chemical symbol for the atom is surrounded1 by a number of dots2 corresponding to the number of valence electrons.

Your turn: Exercise 8 – Write the Lewis structure for the following elements:

C – Carbon Li – Lithium He – Helium F – Fluorine 1 Surrounded = Rodeado 2 Dots = puntos

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The Periodic Table

The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular display of the 118 known chemical elements organized by selected properties of their atomic structures. The elements are placed in specific places because of the way they look and act.

Exercise 9 – Choose 3 different colors to identify metals, metalloids and non-metals in the following periodic table.

The horizontal rows of the table are called periods. Vertical columns are called

groups.

Elements of the periodic table

H – Hydrogen Li – Lithium Na – Sodium

K – Potassium Rb – Rubidium Cs – Cesium

Fr – Francium Be – Beryllium Mg – Magnesium

Ca – Calcium Sr – Strontium Ba – Barium

Ra – Radium Sc – Scandium Y – Yttrium

Lu –Lutetium Ac – Actinium Lr – Lawrencium

Ti - Titanium Zr – Zirconium Hf – Hafnium

Rf – Rutherfordium V – Vanadium Ta – Tantalum

Db – Dubnium Cr – Chromium Mo – molybdenum

W – Tungsten Sg – Seaborgium Mn – Manganese

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Fe – Iron Ru – Ruthenium Os – Osmium

Hs – Hassium Co – Cobalt Rh – Rhodium

Ir – Iridium Mt – Meitnerium Ni – Nickel

Pd – Palladium Pt – Platinum Ds - Darmstadtium

Cu – Copper Ag – Silver Au – Gold

Rg – Roentgenium Zn – Zinc Cd – Cadmium

Hg – Mercury Cn - Copernicium B – Boron

Al – Aluminum Ga – Gallium In – Indium

Tl – Thallium C – Carbon Si – Silicon

Ge – Germanium Sn – Tin Pb – Lead

N – Nitrogen P – Phosphorus As – Arsenic

Sb – Antimony Bi – Bismuth O – Oxygen

S – Sulfur Se – Selenium Te – Tellurium

Po – Polonium F – Fluoride Cl – Chlorine

Br – Bromine I – Iodine At – Astatine

He – Helium Ne – Neon Ar – Argon

Kr – Krypton Xe – Xenon Rn – Radon

La – Lanthanum Ce – Cerium Th – Thorium

Pr - Praseodymium Pa – Protactinium Nd – Neodymium

U – Uranium Pm – Promethium Np – Neptunium

Sm – Samarium Pu – Plutonium Eu – Europium

Am – Americium Gd – Gadolinium Cm – Curium

Tb – Terbium Bk – Berkelium Dy – Dysprosium

Cf – Californium Ho – Holmium Es – Einstenium

Er – Erbium Fm – Fermium Tm – Thulium

Md – Mendelevium Yb – Ytterbium No – Nobelium Nb – Niobium Uut - Ununtrium Uuq - Ununquadium

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Chemical phenomenon

A chemical phenomenon is any change in the structure of matter. It happens when a compound is transformed into another with different properties.

Examples of chemical reactions in everyday life 1. Photosynthesis in plants

2. Digestion in our own bodies

3. Decay of any biological matter (from plants to dead animals).

4. Oxidation of various materials exposed to the atmosphere (For example: Iron can rust.)

5. Combusting petrol in a car engine

6. Cooking, souring, fermenting or burning

Thus, it won't be wrong to say learning chemistry and chemical reactions start at home.

Exercise 10 – Write 10 examples of chemical reactions.

1. ……… 2. ……… 3. ………. 4. ………. 5. ……… 6. ……… 7. ……… 8. ……… 9. ………. 10.……….

This is an example of

chemical phenomenon

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Chemical reactions

A chemical reaction takes place1 whenever elements combine to form a compound2. So, a chemical reaction is a change in which reactants3 form new compounds called products4.

Rate5 of reaction:

As you probably know, reactions happens at different speed. Some reactions occurs6 in less than a second while others takes years to happen. The rate of the reaction7 depends on the type of molecules which are combining.

Which things can affect the rate of the reaction?

1. Concentration : more concentration = higher chance that molecules will collide = reaction is speeded up8

2. Temperature: higher temperature = molecules have more energy and bounce9 much more = more molecules will collide10 to combine = reaction is speeded up 3. Pressure: increasing11 pressure (especially in gases) = molecules concentrate

and collide with each other more often

1 Takes place = ocurre 2 Compound = Compuesto 3 Reactants = Reactivos 4 Products = Productos 5 Rate = Velocidad 6

Occurs = sinonimo de “happens”

7 Rate of the reaction = velocidad de reaccion 8

Speeded up = acelerada

9

Bounce = rebotar / brincar

10 Collide = chocar / encontrarse 11

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In the lab

Unit 3

target:

1.

Laboratory equipment

2.

Safety in the lab

3.

Lab work

4.

Words relating to lab work

Vocabulary:

Container = Contenedor/Recipiente Heated = Calentado Withdraw = Retirar Grind = Moler Hold = mantener/sostener/sujetar Salt bridge = Puente salino

Concern = Referirse Supplies = suministros labels = etiquetas hazard = Peligro/riesgo Avoid = evitar Fanning = abanicar/ventilar spill = vertido/derrame to rinse = enjuagar

Running water = agua corriente Discarding = descartando

Dealing = tratar

– deal with = tratar con

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Laboratory equipment

Name: Beaker

Use: as container1. It can be heated2 Made of: glass

Name: Graduated Cylinder

Use: it’s very useful to measure volume. Made of: glass

Name: Stirring Rod

Use: To stir combinations of materials Made of: glass

Name: Buret

Use: To withdraw3 and measure volumes of solutions in titration4 Made of: glass

1

Container = contenedor / recipiente

2 Heated = Calentado 3 Withdraw = retirar 4

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24 Name: Mortar and Pestle

Use: to grind1 chemicals to a powder Made of: heavy porcelain

Name: Volumetric Flask

Use: Used in preparation of solution Made of: glass

Name: Spatula

Use: ………..

Made of: metal, plastic or porcelain

Name: Erlenmeyer flask / conical flask Use:………..

Made of: Glass

Name: Büchner flask, also known as a vacuum2 flask Use:………

Made of:………

Name: Wash bottle

Use: to dispense distilled water Made of: ……….

1

Grind = Moler / Pulverizar

2

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25 Name: Tongs

Use: To pick up and hold apparatus Made of: Metal

Name: Double buret clamp (with two burets) use: Hold burets when titrating

Made of: ……… with flexible clips

Name: Balance Use: ………

Name: Volumetric flask

Use: marked off to 500ml capacity Made of: glass

Name: Florence flask Use: can be heated Made of: ………..

Name: Bunsen burner Use: heating device Made of: metal

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26 Name: Test tubes in rack

Use: Hold test tubes Made of: Plastic or wood

Name: Bottle

Use: ………. Made of: glass

Name: Funnel Use: ………... Made of: glass

Name: Dropper pipet

Use: to transfer small amounts of liquids

Name: Volumetric Pipet Use: ………. Made of: glass

Name: Evaporating dish Use: ………. Made of: Porcelain

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27 Name: U tube

Use: Useful as a "salt bridge" when making batteries Made of: glass

Name: Watch glass Use:

Made of: glass

Name: Condensers

Use: general purpose condenser that can be used for distillation and extraction

Made of: glass

Name: Separatory Funnel

Use: to separate liquids with different density Made of: glass

Name: Test tube

Use:………. Made of: ……….

Name: Desiccator or desiccant container

Use: is a chamber that removes water from chemicals or items

Name: Petri dish

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28 Name: Syringe

Name: Tripod

Use: hold flask to be heaten Made of: metal

Name: Gloves

Use: Protect your hands Name: Goggles

Use: to protect your eyes

All the laboratory equipment made of glass are also called laboratory glassware.

Exercise 11 – Group these words under the correct heading

first-aid kit – gloves - Volumetric pipet – burette - safety shower - eye-wash - lab coat – goggles - Beaker

Safety Equipment Protective clothing Glassware

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Words relating to Lab work

Give the Spanish translation for the next words. These words may come in handy when describing lab work.

Add = ……….. Check = ……….. Spread = ……….. Splash = ……….. Stir = ……….. Mix = ……….. Melt = ……….. Dry = ……….. Grow = ……….. Titrate = ……….. Swab = ……….. Weight = ……….. Remove = ……….. Heat = ……….. Sample = ……….. Shake = ………..

key for exercise 11:

Safety equipment: first-aid kit, safety shower, eye-wash Protective clothing: lab coat, gloves, goggles

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Lab Safety Rules

Safety must be the first concern1 of everyone working in a laboratory. 1. Know the location and use of all safety equipment in your laboratory. (read more

at the next page)

2. Wear a laboratory coat or apron.

3. Wear gloves when dealing with chemicals. 4. Wear closed-toe and closed-heel shoes

5. Wear protective glasses or goggles for all laboratory work. (Wear glasses instead of contacts if possible )

6. Tie back loose hair.

7. Keep your work area clean and organized, free from unnecessary supplies2 and papers.

8. Check chemical 3labels twice to make sure you have the correct substance. Some chemical formulas and names differ by only a letter or number.

9. Pay attention to the hazard4 classifications shown on the label.

10.You may be asked to transfer some laboratory chemicals from a common bottle or jar to your own test tube or beaker. DO NOT return any excess material to its original container.

11.Never taste laboratory materials.

12.Handle equipment carefully and deliberately

13.When using equipment with electrical cords, place the cord out of the way 14.Avoid5 using chipped6 or broken glassware

15.If you are instructed to smell something, do so by fanning7 some of the vapor toward your nose. Do not place your nose near the opening of the container. 16.Never look directly down into a test tube; view the contents from the side. 17.In case of a chemical spill8 on your skin or clothing rinse9 the affected area with

plenty of water. If the eyes are affected water-washing must begin immediately and continue for 10 to 15 minutes or until professional assistance is obtained. 1 Concern = Preocupacion 2 Supplies = Suministros 3 Label = Etiqueta

4 Hazard = Peligro / Riesgo 5 Avoid = Evitar 6 Chipped = Astillado 7 Fanning = Abanicandose 8 Spill = Derrame 9 Rinse = Enjuagar

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31 18.Minor skin burns should be placed under cold, running water1.

19.When discarding2 used chemicals, carefully follow the instructions provided. 20.Wash hands after dealing3 chemicals.

21.Do NOT put lab supplies in your mouth.

22.Before leaving the laboratory, ensure that gas lines and water faucets are shut off.

Laboratory Safety Equipment

(including the safety shower, eye wash, first-aid kit, fire extinguisher, and blanket)

Safety Shower

Use a safety shower in the event of a chemical spill. How to use:

1. Pull the overhead handle

2. remove clothing that may be contaminated with chemicals 3. Rinse the skin

Fire Blanket

A fire blanket can be used to smother a fire. How to use:

1. Place the blanket on top, or surrounding a burning object, the job of the blanket is to cut off the oxygen supply to the fire, thereby putting it out

Eye wash fountain

In the event of an eye injury4 or chemical splash, use the eyewash immediately. How to use:

1. Run some water through the eyewash fountain before you use it. 2. Retract your eyelid (hold it open);

3. Run fresh water over your eye for several minutes (from 10 to 15 minutes)

Fire extinguisher

There are two main types of fire extinguishers, carbon dioxide or dry chemical (powder).

How to use:

1. Read the tag to know which you will use. The tag also should show the date the extinguisher was last serviced

2. Carbon dioxide extinguishers are good, general purpose extinguishers. 3. Dry-chemical (powder) are used for difficult cases, say certain types of

electrical fires.

4. avoid using a dry-chemical extinguisher on a fellow human being.

1 Running water = Agua corriente 2

Discarding = Descartar / desechar

3

Dealing = Tratar

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32

First aid kit: First Aid1 kits are available in the lab for minor injuries like cuts or scrapes.

Exits from the lab: Make sure that you know how to exit the lab quickly, in the event of an emergency. You should know two ways to get out.

Hazard diagrams

hazard diagram is widely used to indicate the health, fire, and reactivity of chemicals. It is important to be familiar with this diagram and what the number in each section indicates in regards to the hazard presented by the chemical to which it is referring

Red is FIRE danger: rated on a 0-4 basis. 0 = will not burn

1 = must be preheated to burn 2 = Ignites when moderately heated

3 = Ignites at normal temperatures 4 = Extremely flamable

Yellow indicates REACTIVITY danger: rated on a 0-4 basis 0 = Normally stable

1 = Unstable if heated: use normal precautions

2 = Violent chemical change possible: use hose streams from distance

3 = Strong shock or heat may detonate: use monitors from behind explosive resistant barriers

4 = May detonate: vacate area if materials are exposed to fire Blue represents HEALTH HAZARDS: rated on a 0-4 basis

0 = Like ordinary material 1 = Slightly hazardous

2 = hazardous: use breathing apparatus

3= Extremely dangerous: use full protecting clothing 4 = Too dangerous to enter vapor or liquid

WHITE signifies specific hazards, e.g. oxidizers, acids, bases, or corrosive materials.

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33

Chemical labels

Chemical manufacturers are required to perform an assessment of the physical and health hazards of the chemicals they produce. This information must be made

available in two places: the chemical label and the material safety data sheet (MSDS). Thus, the information found on the original container label and the MSDS may provide a great deal of information about the identity of the chemical constituents and their health and physical hazards

Flammable

Explosive

Corrosive

Poison

Environmental hazard

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

•When a chemical is purchased, the supplier will send a MSDS sheet. •The MSDS sheet lists the known dangers of the chemical in question.

•Make sure you use the right MSDS sheet for the right chemical, as many chemical names sound similar.

You can find more info on:

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34

Exercise 12: Decide whether these statements are true or false

When in the laboratory you should wear sandals

When in the laboratory you should wear closed-toed shoes If acid gets on your skin or clothes, wash at once with water

You must wear your goggles in the laboratory to improve your vision Never heat a test tube that is closed

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35

Lab work

Methods of separating mixtures and purifying substances Filtration

is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids

Distillation

Distillation is used to separate two liquids that are miscible (miscible: liquids that completely mix and don’t form two layers1)

Decantation

Is the way of separating a liquid from an insoluble solid which has a density greater than water. The mixture is allowed to stand e.g. in a beaker, until all the solid settles out to the bottom of the container. Then the liquid is carefully poured off2 to leave the insoluble solid behind.

Chromatography

is the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the "mobile phase", which carries3 it through a structure holding another material called the "stationary phase". The various

constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to separate. The separation is based on differential partitioning4 between the mobile and stationary phases. Subtle5 differences in a compound's partition coefficient result in differential retention on the stationary phase and thus changing the separation.

Exercise 13 – Try to describe others Methods of separating mixtures and purifying substances

TLC – Thin Layer Chromatography :

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

How can we separate two liquids that do not mix?

1 Layers = Capas 2

Poured off = Vertir Fuera

3

Carries = Lleva

4

Partitioning = Particionamiento

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36

Chemical Compounds

Unit 5

target:

1.

Nomenclature:

- traditional naming of inorganic compounds - IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds - IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds

2.

List of common ions names

3.

Organic compounds list containing a few types of organic molecules

Vocabulary:

Write below your own vocabulary list.

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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37

Traditional naming of inorganic compounds

Compuestos binarios

La primera palabra señala alguna característica general a un grupo grande de sustancias, por ejemplo: acido, hidróxido, etc. La segunda palabra señala la característica especial que permite distinguir la especie química:

Metal oxides

1. Oxido de + nombre del metal 2. Oxido metal+ico

In english

To name oxides according to the traditional nomenclature1 you need to learn a little system of prefixes and suffixes for the oxidation numbers.

If the metal has one oxidation number there isn’t a suffix to use. (some people use –ic suffix)

If it has two oxidation numbers you have to choose a suffix according the oxidation number.

With the smaller number you should use –ous, and –ic with the bigger number.

-ous -ic

+2 +3

+1 +2

Be careful: Suffix2 does not depend on the number, but on how many valences3 the element has.

Writing structure of traditional nomenclature:

ElementName+Suffix Oxide

Manganic Oxide Ferric Oxide 1 Nomenclature = Nomenclatura 2 Suffix = Sufijo 3 Valences = Valencias

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38 Hydroxides

Hydroxides1 has this writing structure:

Metal+OH

You need to use a suffix like in oxide nomenclature (-ic or - -ous) Writing structure of traditional nomenclature:

ElementName+Suffix Hydroxide

Example: Ferric Hydroxide

Acids

Acids are formed when Non-Metal Oxides (also known as anhydrides) react2 with water

You need to learn a little system of prefixes3 and suffixes (for the oxidation numbers)

Hyp……..ous -ous -ic Per……..ic

+2 +4 +6

+1 +3 +5 +7

the suffix does not depend on the number but on how many valences the element has

Writing structure of traditional nomenclature: ElementName + Suffix Acid

Or, when needed:

Prefix + ElementName + Suffix Acid

Examples: Hypochlorous acid Chlorous acid Chloric Acid Perchloric acid 1 Hydroxides = Hidroxidos 2 React = Reaccionar 3 Prefixes = Prefijos

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39 IUPAC and STOCK nomenclature in acids is not used frequently, as it is a bit difficult and general chemical compound markets in the most part use only the TRADITIONAL nomenclature.

Salt nomenclature

The name of a salt starts with the name of the cation (e.g. sodium or ammonium) followed by the name of the anion (e.g. chloride or acetate). Salts are often referred to only by the name of the cation (e.g. sodium salt or ammonium salt) or by the name of the anion (e.g. chloride or acetate).

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40

IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds

You need to learn the following prefixes:

Number Prefixes 1 -mono 2 -di 3 -tri 4 -tetra 5 -penta 6 -hexa 7 -hepta 8 -octa 9 -nona 10 -deca

the writing structure of IUPAC nomenclature is:

Prefix ElementName + Prefix + Hydroxide/oxyde

if the metal has a subscript1 of one, we don’t use MONO, we only use MONO if the radical OH has 1 as subscript

The name of the electronegative constituent is constructed by modifying the element name with the ending

‘ide’

Examples:

1. HCl hydrogen chloride

2. NO nitrogen oxide, or nitrogen monooxide, or nitrogen monoxide 3. NO2 nitrogen dioxide

4. N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide 5. OCl2 oxygen dichloride 6. O2Cl dioxygen chloride 7. Fe3O4 triiron tetraoxide 8. SiC silicon carbide

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41 Naming cations

The name of a monoatomic cation is that of the element with an appropriate charge number appended1 in parentheses.

Naming anions

The name of a monoatomic anion is the element name (Table I) modified so as to carry the anion designator ‘ide’, either formed by replacing the ending of the element name (‘en’,‘ese’, ‘ic’, ‘ine’, ‘ium’, ‘ogen’, ‘on’, ‘orus’, ‘um’, ‘ur’, ‘y’ or ‘ygen’) by ‘ide’ or by directly adding ‘ide’ as an ending to the element name.

El nombre de un anion monoatomico es el nombre del elemento (ver table 1) modificado en modo que pueda llevar el sufijo “ide” relativo al anion. Se forma remplazando el final del nombre del elemento (‘en’,‘ese’, ‘ic’, ‘ine’, ‘ium’, ‘ogen’, ‘on’, ‘orus’, ‘um’, ‘ur’, ‘y’ or ‘ygen’) con “ide” o directamente agregando “ide” al final del nombre del elemento.

Examples:

1. chlorine, chloride

2. carbon, carbide

3. xenon, xenonide

4. tungsten, tungstide

5. bismuth, bismuthide

The endings in anion names are ‘ide’ (monoatomic or homopolyatomic species, heteropolyatomic species named from a parent hydride), ‘ate’ (heteropolyatomic species named additively2), and ‘ite’ (used in a few names which are still acceptable but do not derive from current systematic nomenclature)

Some names of monoatomic anions are based on the root of the Latin element names. In these the ending ‘um’ or ‘ium’ is replaced by ‘ide’.

Examples:

1. silver, argentum, argentide 2. gold, aurum, auride

3. copper, cuprum, cupride 4. iron, ferrum, ferride 5. lead, plumbum, plumbide 6. tin, stannum, stannide

1

Appended = Adjunto / Añadido

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42

List of common ion names

Monatomic anions: Cl− chloride S2− sulfide P3− phosphide Polyatomic ions: NH4+ ammonium H3O+ hydronium NO3− nitrate NO2− nitrite ClO− hypochlorite ClO2− chlorite ClO3− chlorate ClO4− perchlorate SO32− sulfite SO42− sulfate

HSO3− hydrogen sulfite (or bisulfite)

HCO3− hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate) CO32− carbonate

PO43− phosphate

HPO42− hydrogen phosphate CrO42− chromate BO33− borate C2O42− oxalate CN− cyanide SCN− thiocyanate MnO4− permanganate

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43

IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds

In order to name organic compounds you must first memorize a few basic names. These names are listed within the discussion of naming alkanes1. In general, the base part of the name reflects the number of carbons in what you have assigned to be the

parent chain. The suffix of the name reflects the type(s) of functional group(s)

present on (or within) the parent chain. Other groups which are attached to the parent chain are called substituents.

Alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons)

names of the straight chain saturated hydrocarbons for up to a 12 carbon chain

El sufijo –ano utilizado para los alcanos en español corresponde al –ane en inglés. Name Number of carbons

Methane 1 Ethane 2 Propane 3 Butane 4 Pentane 5 Hexane 6 Heptane 7 Octane 8 Nonane 9 Decane 10 Undecane 11 Dodecane 12

The names of the substituents formed by the removal of one hydrogen from the end of the chain is obtained by changing the suffix -ane to -yl.

Examples:

Isobutyl Tert-butyl Sec-butyl Isopropyl

A cyclic (ring) hydrocarbon is designated by the prefix cyclo- which appears directly in front of the base name

Commas are used between numbers and dashes2 are used between letters and numbers

1

Alkanes = Alcanos

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44

Example:

4-ethyl-3,3-dimethylheptane Alkyl halides

You need to use the prefix Fluoro- Chloro- Bromo- Iodo- Example: 2-bromo-3-methylbutane

Alkenes and Alkynes - unsaturated hydrocarbons

Double bonds1 in hydrocarbons are indicated by replacing the suffix -ane with -ene. If there is more than one double bond, the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of double bonds present (-adiene, -atriene, etc)

Triple bonds are named in a similar way using the suffix -yne. Alcohols

Alcohols are named by replacing the suffix -ane with -anol. If there is more than one hydroxyl group2 (-OH), the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of hydroxyl groups present (-anediol, -anetriol, etc.).

Ethers

The two alkyl groups3 attached to the oxygen are put in alphabetical order with spaces between the names and they are followed by the word ether. The prefix di- is used if both alkyl groups are the same.

Example:

Diethylether

1

Double Bond = Enlace Doble

2

Hydroxyl group = Grupo Hidroxilo

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45 Aldehydes

Aldehydes are named by replacing the suffix -ane with –anal Ketones

Ketones are named by replacing the suffix -ane with -anone. If there is more than one carbonyl group (C=O), the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of carbonyl groups present (-anedione, -anetrione, etc.).

Carboxylic Acids

Carboxylic acids are named by counting the number of carbons in the longest

continuous chain including the carboxyl group and by replacing the suffix -ane of the corresponding alkane with -anoic acid

Esters

The alkyl group is named like a substituent using the -yl ending. This is followed by a space. The acyl portion of the name (what is left over) is named by replacing the -ic

acid suffix of the corresponding carboxylic acid with -ate. Example:

Methylpropanoate

Amines

They are named like ethers, the alkyl (R) groups attached to the nitrogen are put in alphabetical order with no spaces between the names and these are followed by the word amine

Example:

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46

Organic compounds list containing a few types of organic

molecules

 Alkanes  Alkenes  Alkynes  Alcohols  Aldehydes  Ketones  Carboxylic acids  Amines  Amides  Nitrites  Nitrates  Amino acids  Haloalkanes  Acyl/acid chlorides  Cycloalkanes  Cycloalkenes  Annulenes  Sulfides  Sulfates  Hydrochlorides  Esters  Ethers  Sugars  Cyanates  Isocyanates  Cyanides  Cyanohydrins  Fullerenes  Phenols

 Phenyls and benzyls

Exercise: Name these compounds K2O Fe2O3 Na2O NaOH Al(OH)3 CuOH

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47

The Environment

Unit 6

target:

1.

Environmental damage

2.

Sewage treatment

Vocabulary:

Harm = Daño

Adverse effect = Efecto negativo Fossil Fuels = combustibles fosiles Sewage = Aguas Residuales

Household sewage = Aguas residuals del hogar Sludge = lodo/sediment fangoso

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48

Pollution

Is the introduction of pollutants1 (contaminants) into a natural environment2 that causes instability, disorder, harm3 or discomfort4 to the ecosystem5. Pollution6 can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise7, heat8 or light. What is acid rain?

Acid rain9 is a precipitation10 having an acid pH value which has an adverse effect11 on animals and plants on which it falls. Acid rains results from the emission into the atmosphere of various pollutant gases which originate from the burning of fossil fuels and from car exhaust fumes.

Exercise: Try to describe what is air pollution and what is the ozone layer. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 1 Pollutants = Contaminantes 2 Environment = Ambiente 3 Harm = Daño 4 Discomfort = Malestar 5 Ecosystem = Ecosistema 6 Pollution = contaminacion 7 Noise = Ruido 8 Heat = Calor 9

Acid Rain = Lluvia Acida

10

Precipitation = Precipitacion

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49

The lexicon of environmental damage

Acid rain – lluvia acida

Climate change – cambio climatico Deforestation - deforestacion

Ground pollution – contaminacion del suelo

Ozone depletion – Reduccion de la capa de ozono

Waste of resources – derroche/despilfarro de recursos naturales. Greenhouse efecto – Efecto invernadero

Ozone layer – Capa de ozono Adverse – Dañino Harmful – Nocivo/Perjudicial Harmless – Inofensivo/inocuo Warming – calentamiento Noxious – Harmful/toxic Hazard – Risk Rise – increment

Endanger – poner en peligro Amount – cantidad

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50

Sewage treatment

Sewage1 treatment, or domestic wastewater2 treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage3, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe4 fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge5) suitable6 for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer).

A typical sewage treatment process:

1.

Separate and dispose of grosser debris7 (large solids, rags, plastics)

2.

Grit removal (grit, stones, sand)

3.

Primary sedimentation (in which primary sludge is obtained)

4.

Biological treatment (in which secondary –biological- sludge is obtained)

5.

Tertiary treatment (tertiary sludge is obtained)

Exercise: Which are the main advantages obtained by treating wastewater? For example: Quality improvement of streams.

1 Sewage = Aguas residuales / Aguas servidas 2

Wastewater = Aguas residuales

3

Household sewage = Aguas residuales de los hogares

4 Environmentally-safe = Ambientalmente seguro/a 5

Sludge = Lodo / Fango

6

Suitable = Adecuado / apto / idoneo

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51

Industrial Chemistry

Unit 7

target:

1.

Basics of P&ID

2.

Common P&ID symbols used in developing Instrumentation Diagrams

3.

Symbols for process equipment

4.

Unit of measurement Vocabulary: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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52

Basics of Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams

P&ID stands for Piping1 and Instrumentation Diagram or Drawing. Alternatively, it could also be called Process and Instrumentation Diagram or simply P&I diagram or drawing. P&IDs are also known as Engineering Flow Diagrams or Mechanical Flow Diagrams .P&IDs are often used in the process industry to show the process flow and other installed equipment and instruments. They show the interconnection of process equipment and the instrumentation used to control the process.

Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams play a crucial role in the design and engineering of process plants and piping systems. P&IDs are schematic diagrams that contain engineering and design details of the process plants.

A P&ID is a working document that is used by every discipline involved in the design, engineering and construction of process plants. It is used as a Process Plant Layout and Piping Design reference for checking engineering and design documents and drawings associated with a project.

Common P&ID symbols used in Developing Instrumentation

Diagrams -

Instrument Indentifiers

PC = Pressure2 controller PI =Pressure Indicator PR = Pressure recorder

PIC = Pressure indicating controller PRC = Pressure recording controller PSV = Pressure safety valve

RV = Relief valve3 LA = Level alarm

LAH = Level alarm high LAL = Level alarm low LI = Level indicator

LRC = Level recording cotroller FA = Flow4 alarm

FE = Flow element FI = Flow indicator FR = Flow recorder

FRC = Flow recording controller TA = Temperature alarm

TI = Temperature Indicator TR = Temperature recorder

TRC = Temperature recorder controller TW = temperature well 1 Piping = Tuberias 2 Pressure = Presion 3

Relieve valve = Valvula de alivio / seguridad

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53

Symbols for Process Equipment

Pressure vessels1

Centrifugal pump2

Conveyor belt3

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger

Jacketed vessel Generic Valve Glove valve Butterfly valve Ball valve Gate valve Angle valve

Three way valve

1

Vessel = Contenedor / tanque / recipiente

2

Pump = bomba

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54

Units of measurement

Exercise: Using a dictionary try to translate these unit of measurement

Millimeter Centimeter Decimeter Meter Kilometer Miles Foot yard inch cubit parsecs light years square meter hectare Degrees of Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit kilogram metric ton cubic meter hectoliter

imperial gallon liquid US gallon liquid US gallon dry barrel

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55

How to write a resume?

Unit 8

Target:

1.

Learn to write a resume.

Vocabulary: Advertisement = Anuncio/Publicidad Highlight = Destacar Achievements = Logros Skills = Habilidades Duties = Funciones/deberes Accomplishments = Logros/realizaciones Honed = Perfeccionado

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56

Writing a resume

A resume is an advertisement about you. It should highlight how your skills,

experience, and achievements match to the requirements of the job you want to get. What you include on your resume and how you organize your information will be different for each job.

1.

Write your personal information: name, surname, phone number,

email, address, etc.

2.

Decide in what combination you will list your education, work history,

and other achievements. Your best qualities should be listed first

3.

List your employment history. This can be done in one of two ways:

a. If your work history includes positions in more than one field, you should list your jobs under functional sub-headings, which categorize the skills you used at each particular one. When listing your employment history in this manner, each sub-heading should contain a listing of the positions you’ve held that relate to those functional areas. The listing should include the name and location of the employer, a description of your duties and responsibilities, the dates you were employed, and any accomplishments or achievements at that particular job.

b. If you can demonstrate that your evolving work history highlights the key skills you want to promote, you may want to list your work history in reverse chronological order, without including any sub-headings. Instead of the subheadings, you could strategically select the way you word your descriptions of your roles and responsibilities to highlight how you honed those skills.

4.

Provide information about your education. The details you include about

your education will be the same as the details you’d include in other resume styles; the difference is in where you present the information on the resume.

5.

Provide information on your skills, awards, and achievements. This can

be blocked into one section, or they can be distributed within the sub-headings of your resume that highlight specific skills.

6.

Format your resume. Some guidelines to follow when formatting your

resume:

a. Set your margins to 1” all the way around.

b. Use a standard font such as Arial or Times New Roman.

c. Use font size 16 for your name, 14 for section headings, and 12 for all other text.

d. Use bold font for your name and section headings.

e. Use plenty of white space (blank lines). The proper use of white space will make your resume easy to scan quickly and much easier to read. f. Always use white paper and black font.

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57

Vocabulary

Unit 8

Target:

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58

A

Ablation = Ablación

Absolute error = Error absoluto Absolute zero = Cero absoluto

Absorption spectrum = Espectro de absorción Accuracy = Precisión

Acid = Acido

Acid rain = Lluvia acida

Activation energy = energía de activación Active transport = Transporte activo Addition reaction = reacción de adicción Adhesive forces = fuerzas de adhesión Aerobic = aeróbico

Aerobic respiration = respiración aeróbica Affinity = Afinidad

Air pollution = Contaminación del aire

Air quality assessment = Evaluación de la calidad del aire Alchemy = Alquimia

Amorphus solid = Solido amorfo

Angular momentum quantum number = Numero cuántico del momento angular Antimatter = Antimateria

Archimedes Principle = Principio de Arquímedes Atmosphere = Atmosfera

Avogadro’s Law = Ley de Avogadro

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59

B

Backscattering = Retro dispersión Binary Acid = Acido binario

Binary Compound = Compuesto binario Biodegradability = Biodegradabilidad Boiling Point = Punto de ebullición Bond Energy = Energía de enlace

C

Calorie = Calorías

Calorimeter = calorímetro Capillary = Capilar

Carcinogen = carcinógeno / cancerígeno Carrier gas = Gas de transporte

Catode ray tube = Tubo de rayos catódicos Centripetal force = fuerza centrípeta

Chain reaction = Reacción en cadena Chemical bonds = Enlaces químicos

Chemical change = transformación química Chemical equation = Ecuación química Chemical equilibrium = Equilibrio químico Chemical kinetics = cinética química Chemistry = Química

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60 Coenzyme = Coenzima

Cohesive forces = Fuerzas de cohesión Coke = Coque

Colligative Propierties = Propiedades coligativas Collision theory = Teoría de las colisiones Colloid = Coloide

Complex ions = Iones complejos Compound = Compuesto

Compressed gas = Gas comprimido

Compression factor = Factor de compresión Concentration = Concentración

Condensation = Condensación

Condensed Phases = Fases condensadas

Conjugate acid-base pair = par conjugado ácido – base Coordination = Coordinación

Covalent bond = enlace covalente

Covalent compounds = Compuestos covalentes Critical point = Punto critico

Cryoscopy constant = Constante crioscopica Crystallization = Cristalización

D

Deflagration = Deflagración Degeneracy = Degeneración Delocalization = Deslocalización

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61 Denaturation = Desnaturalización

Density = Densidad

Depolarization Factor = Factor de despolarización Diamagnetic = Diamagnético

Diamond = Diamante

Diastereotopic = diastereotópicos Diathermic = Diatérmico

Dilution = Disolución

Dipole – dipole interactions = Interacciones dipolo-dipolo Dipole moment = Momento dipolar

Dissociation = Disociación Distillation = Destilación Distortion = Distorsión Double bond = Enlace doble Drug = Droga/fármaco Ductility = Ductilidad

Dynamic Equilibrium = Equilibrio dinámico

E

Ebullioscopic constant = Constante ebulloscópica Efficacy = Eficacia

Elastic Deformation = Deformación elástica Electrical conductivity = Conductibilidad eléctrica Electrolysis = Electrolisis

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62 Electron affinity = Afinidad electrónica

Electronegativity = Electronegatividad

Electronic Transition = Transición electrónica Electrophile = Electrófilo

Electrophoresis = Electroforesis Electrostatics = Electroestática Element = Elemento

Eluant (or eluent) = eluyente

Emission spectrum = Espectro de emisión Emulsifying agent = Agente emulsionante Enantiomer = Enantiomero Endothermic = Endotérmico Energy = Energía Enthalpy = Entalpia Entropy = Entropía Enzyme = Enzima

Equilibrium (or chemical equilibrium) = Equilibrio (o equilibrio químico) Essential oil = Aceite esencial

Eutectic temperatura = temperatura eutéctica Evaporation = Evaporación

Excited state = Estado Excitado Exothermic = Exotérmico

Extensive property = Propiedad extensiva Extrapolate = Extrapolar

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63

F

Fatty acid = Ácido graso Fermentation = Fermentación Filtration = Filtración

Fire = Fuego

Flame test = ensayo de la llama Flammable = Inflamable

Fractional distillation = Destilación fraccionada Free radical = Radicales libres

Freezing point = punto de congelación

G

Galvanic cell = Celda galvánica

Gamma Radiation = Radiación gamma Glass = vidrio

Greenhouse gas = Gas de invernadero Greenhouse effect = Efecto invernadero

H

Heat = calentar

Heat capacity = Capacidad calorífica Heavy metal = metal pesado

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64 Heterogeneous = heterogéneo Homogeneous = Homogéneo Hybrid = Hibrido Hydrophobic = hidrófobo Hygroscopic = Higroscópico Hypothesis = hipótesis

I

Ideal gas = gas ideal Immiscible = inmiscible Indicator = Indicador Infrared = infrarrojo Inhibitor = inhibidor

Inorganic chemistry = química inorgánica Insecticide = Insecticida

Insoluble = insoluble

Intensive property = Propiedad intensiva Intrinsic property = propiedad intrínseca Isotopes = isotopos

K

Kinetic = cinética

Figure

Actualización...

Referencias