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The Integration of phoenician communities in the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman Empire from a postcolonial perspective

The Integration of phoenician communities in the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman Empire from a postcolonial perspective

"Roman essences" are ultimately acquired by colonised communities. According to Gosden's opinion (2008, 126), it is not possible nowadays to label all cultural forms formerly thought-to-be Roman to be originally from Rome. One of the greatest achievements of Post-Colonialism applied to the Ancient World is to have parted ways with the widely extended idea of sociocultural unity and homogeneity in the Roman Empire. It is more accurate to think of Imperial culture as a "structured system of differences" with many variations on the axes of region, social class, age, gender, etc. (Woolf 1997, 341). Romanisation was a process more complex than cultural substitution as it created local hybrid forms. In relation to Galia, Woolf (1998) defends that their inhabitants not only assimilated provincial Roman culture, but also participated actively in its genesis and development. In our case, we think that Phoenician-Punic communities constructed their own identity discourses by appealing their "Phoenician past" and cultural elements regarded as "Phoenician" in search of favourable positions in the Roman political system.
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Peace and War, Repression and Liberty: Urban Autonomy and Princely Expansionism in the Medieval Holy Roman Empire

Peace and War, Repression and Liberty: Urban Autonomy and Princely Expansionism in the Medieval Holy Roman Empire

At the beginning of the 16 th century, several texts of the knight, poet and political writer Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523) 46 referred to the same subject. In a famous letter to his humanist friend, Willibald Pirckheimer (1470-1530), a patrician from Nuremberg, Hutten describes the life of rural noblemen in a castle and the dangers of feuds. He writes that, when he left his castle, he risked being attacked or ransomed (what also represented a high financial risk) 47 . Of course, this is a literary stylization, but it also clings to the reality of the time. In contrast to his other literary works, this letter is often quoted by historians who write about the problem and terminology of “Raubritter” (noble robbers). But other texts of Hutten, especially his dialogues, provide even more interesting debates. The fact that, as other humanist authors, Hutten stages a fictional discussion of real existing persons, brings this much closer to reality than other literary texts. As Enea Silvio Piccolomini, who, in his Pentalogus, stages a discussion of himself, the future Habsburg emperor Frederick III, his chancellor Kaspar Schlick and the two councillors and bishops Silvester Pflieger and Nicodemo della Scala (an Italian refugee in Germany), in his Praedones (1520), Hutten shows us a fictive debate between himself (Huttenus), a merchant (Mercator) and «Franciscus» (Franz von Sickingen, 1481-1523) 48 . In both texts, the participants discuss about the reformation of the Empire and also refer to Italy (which plays a very important role in Piccolomini’s text). In Hutten’s text, «Mercator», a merchant who works for the Fugger, accuses the knights of disturbing the peace of the Empire and of robbery:
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Children as Office Holders and Benefactors in the Eastern Part of the Roman Empire

Children as Office Holders and Benefactors in the Eastern Part of the Roman Empire

Children as Office Holders and Benefactors in the Eastem Part ofthe Román Empire reditary element became prominent, shifting into public life previous «margináis», children and women, wh[r]

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J R R  Tolkien and Jordanes  Some resemblances in spiritual outlook

J R R Tolkien and Jordanes Some resemblances in spiritual outlook

Romana Jordanes explains in succesion the providential ordinance of earthly rule since Creation, the tragedy of the Roman Empire as the last Power, which has fallen from a paradise of effortless might to the common condition of humanity, and finally the spectacle of a recent victory against a staggering assault by many barbarians (Goffert 1988: 107). Such an arrangement of the historical material corresponds quite well to the sequence of events included by Tolkien in the ‘historical’ narratives of the Silmarillion and the Lord of the Rings: that is, the description of the creation of Arda and the apparition of the angelic Valar into History, the marring of Arda and the Fall of Men and Elves, the long, protracted, bitter fight of Elves and Men against Evil during three Ages of the World, and their recent victory against Sauron in the War of the Ring (RK, Appendix B, 1057- 1071).
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A Phoenician Way to be Roman

A Phoenician Way to be Roman

With regards to the first question, I think it necessary to explain, even only briefly, that this elaboration of a native ethnic discourse within a fundamentally Hellenistic-Roman era could be explained largely by the needs of the elites of the above-mentioned cities for political legitimation, totally immersed as they were in the complex game of ethnic oppositions and aggregations which sustained the ideological structures of the Roman Empire. That is to say, alongside municipal civic identities, which, as is known, constitute the most important framework of ethnic reference within the Roman world, there was generated what we could consider constitutes a new «Phoenician identity» which until that point had not existed as such, due above all to the ambition of these communities and their aristocracies to secure the most favorable position possible in the recomposition of powers and hierarchies within a political system like that of the Roman Empire, which was notably flexible in its ability to integrate conquered peoples.
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Ritual and hierarchy in the mysteries of Mithras

Ritual and hierarchy in the mysteries of Mithras

But in an important new book, Jaime Alvar has suggested that examination of the 'oriental cults' of the Roman Empire, precisely because they were not so embedded in the other socio -pol[r]

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Constantine: the Legal Recognition of Christianity and its Antecedents [El reconocimiento legal del cristianismo y sus antecedentes]

Constantine: the Legal Recognition of Christianity and its Antecedents [El reconocimiento legal del cristianismo y sus antecedentes]

it was not decided by Nero, but by the Senate long before Nero. If Pliny in Ep. 10.96 knew that Christians had to be punished, either for «crimes that are attached to the Christian name» (flagitia cohaerentia nomini) or due to «their name itself, even in ab- sence of any crime» (nomen ipsum si flagitiis careat), and if Trajan recommended that Christians be punished as such (ibid. 10, 97), this further indicates that Christianity per se was already illegal in the Roman Empire, even in a period in which an emper- or such as Trajan did not actively persecute Christians – unlike Nero – and required a formal denunciation against them to put them on trial. Hadrian prescribed to con- demn Christians only after a denunciation and a regular trial, and only if they proved «to do something against the laws» (τι παρὰ τοὺς νόμους πράττοντας) 75 . Christianity
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Causas del Síndrome de Bornout en médicos: revisión sistemática de la literatura y análisis bibliométrico

Causas del Síndrome de Bornout en médicos: revisión sistemática de la literatura y análisis bibliométrico

Con formato: Fuente: (Predeterminada) Times New Roman, 11 pto, Color de fuente: Texto 1, Inglés (Estados Unidos). Con formato: Fuente: (Predeterminada) Times New Roman, 11 pto, Color d[r]

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Le proto-tourisme médical : le thermalisme sous le Second Empire

Le proto-tourisme médical : le thermalisme sous le Second Empire

L’origine du thermalisme est traditionnellement associée à Epidaure affichant ses « stèles de guérison » divines, aux pratiques collectives que la Rome impériale impose dans les territoires conquis, et plus tard, aux séjours en villes d’eau. Ceux-ci pourraient même être le point de départ du phénomène touristique. La pratique aristocratique de la saison thermale à Bath au XVIIIe siècle, alliant la prise régulière d’eaux médicinales au bien-être et aux mondanités, lance un mode de vie qui se répand dans toute l’Europe dès la fin de ce siècle et trouve son apogée en France sous le Second Empire.
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Language and empire : a conversation with Ilan Stavans

Language and empire : a conversation with Ilan Stavans

IS: The fall of the last Moorish stronghold, Boabdil’s Granada, and the consolidation of the Spanish Empire at the hands of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, brought forth a unified national spirit. It coalesced under a single banner: one state, one religion, one language. It also recognized Spanish as the de facto official language. From his cátedra at the University of Salamanca, Antonio de Nebrija, who once was Bishop of Ávila, is the spokesperson for the cause. “Language,” he said in his prologue to the Gramática castellana, published in the annus mirabilis of Spanish history, “has always been the perfect instrument of empire.” He added: “After Your Highness takes under her yoke many barbarian towns and nations with strange tongues, and with the conquering of them, they will need to receive the laws that the conqueror puts on the conquered and with those, our language.” At the time Sebastián de Covarrubias’s Tesoro de la lengua española o castellana is released, under the aegis of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, in 1611—in between part I and II of Don Quixote—he is ambivalent, even in the title, between the terms I mentioned before: “castellano” and “español.” Which one to use? The ambivalence remains palpable today.
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Estudio temático del amor y la guerra en el Roman d'Enéas y el Roman de Troie: del modelo clásico al texto medieval

Estudio temático del amor y la guerra en el Roman d'Enéas y el Roman de Troie: del modelo clásico al texto medieval

Este trabajo de investigación tiene como propósito el análisis de dos temas tradicionales en la literatura medieval francesa, como son el amor y la guerra; ambos temas esenciales en dos obras literarias fundamentales en la historia de la literatura francesa, consideradas como los ancestros del género novelesco. Se trata de dos textos del siglo XII: Enéas y Troie, que forman parte de lo que se ha denominado novela o trilogía antigua: traducciones/adaptaciones de obras de la Antigüedad clásica elaboradas en la segunda mitad del siglo XII, constituida por el Roman de Thèbes, de autor anónimo y que se inspira de la Tebaida de Estacio, el Roman d’Enéas, de autor también anónimo que toma como modelo clásico la Eneida de Virgilio y el Roman de Troie, cuyo autor Benoît de Sainte-Maure, expone en los primeros versos de su novela sus dos fuentes: De excidio Trojae de Dares Frigio y Ephemeris belli de Dictis Cretense, ambos autores, testigos presenciales de la guerra de Troya. En cuanto a la datación de las obras objeto de nuestro estudio, nos hemos guiado por la efectuada por E. Faral 1, que sitúa a
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Las Fuerzas Militares como instrumento de socialización del Estado

Las Fuerzas Militares como instrumento de socialización del Estado

The military’s influence on society can be outlined when comparing the Romans and French. While the military in the Roman era was creating a union based on its discipline and professionalism, the French military was a subject of continuous debate and, perhaps, division within the nation. There is evidence that on the eve of the revolution, the French army concealed a number of serious internal flaws behind an imposing façade. The officer corps, for instance, was divided between aristocrats who monopolized higher commands and the lesser nobles who did most of the work, but found promotions blocked for ad- vancement (Rothenberg, 1989, p. 986). Military education was complicated by social tensions and resentment of aristocratic dominance. The king decreed the entrance to all military schools, limiting access to those who could prove that they had been born into a family that had been ennobled for at least four generations. While this regulation was not always strictly adhered to, and a number of non-noble officers were admitted over the years, the issue was very much in view when the French system of military schools was recognized and conceived during the French Revolution and Empire (Kennedy, Kennedy, Neilson, 2002, p. 5). As a result of this situation, collectively, the corps fell out of touch with rank and file. Senior non-commissioned officers, recently deprived of any hope of rising into the officer caste, were disaffected, while the ranks, overwhelmingly native vol- unteers with urban artisan backgrounds, tended to identify with the grievances of the third state. Thus, the cohesion of the army was fragile, and its loyalty to the crown un- certain (Rothenberg, 1989, p. 986). Indiscipline and insubordination were common in the early periods of the revolution; this condition led to the creation of Le Grand Armée.
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L’essence humaniste du roman contemporain

L’essence humaniste du roman contemporain

tout comme son personnage a spolié le Grand Nord, il nous faut à notre tour nous défaire de l’influence de sa vision particulière pour entrer en possession de la nôtre. Dans ce genre romanesque déconcertant où Echenoz a réussi à affoler la narration, selon ses propres dires, le lecteur n’a personne à qui s’identifier. Ferrer est en effet, un improba- ble mélange d’escroc, impassible don Juan, explorateur dépravé, détective improvisé, insatiable viveur sans aucun plaisir manifesté. Par ailleurs, le lecteur est tout autant malmené en matière de style: changement subit de pronoms, de voix narratives, entre monologue intérieur et narrateur omniscient, transposition de temps agrammaticale, rupture syntaxique, absence de ponctuation, mélange des registres de langue pouvant aller de Proust à céline en passant par l’ellipse d’un Beckett, l’antithèse et l’oxymore en guise de principes recteurs. En outre, nous suivons, page après page, une histoire de toute évidence trop riche en rebondissements pour que l’auteur ait jamais prétendu nous faire croire à sa vraisemblance: un abandon ex abrupto, un goût amer de faillite imminente, un départ inopiné autant que risqué puisque Ferrer souffre de troubles cardiaques et qu’il doit fuir les températures extrêmes, un trésor découvert, perdu puis retrouvé deus ex machina, un voleur pisté, démasqué, et gentiment relâché, une femme désirée aussitôt suppléée. D. Viart confirme d’ailleurs cette opinion quand il précise à propos de ce livre: “discordante, proliférante et ludique, l’intrigue relève du picaresque, sauf que le picaro de l’affaire serait in fine le ton même de l’écriture, le roman comme il va” (2005: 386).
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Metodología de diseño de robots de asistenciales : Aplicación al robot portátil ASIBOT

Metodología de diseño de robots de asistenciales : Aplicación al robot portátil ASIBOT

Otro robot asistente de inter´ es, es el robot ROMAN, [Ettelt 98], dise˜ nado en la Te- chnische Universit¨ at M¨ unchen. El manipulador m´ ovil ROMAN, utiliza el brazo ligero MANUS. Un [r]

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Le personnage du roman français contemporain

Le personnage du roman français contemporain

destin, avec audace et amour, sans s’inquiéter de l’épilogue qui le concerne directement, à savoir si lui-même y perdra la vie. Les personnages brossés dans les trois romans cités ci-dessus ne possèdent aucun pouvoir ; pourtant ils sont doués d’une réelle puissance de décision et d’action grâce à laquelle ils font figure de héros à la manière dont l’entendaient J-M. G. Le Clézio dans son roman Ritournelle de la Faim mais aussi Pierre Michon avec ses Vies minuscules. Ce sont des gens “ ordinaires ” qui sont capables de “ gestes extraordinaires ” : le commandant Piracci sauve des vies après avoir troqué la soumission et l’indifférence contre la compassion et l’humanité, Khady Demba lutte jusqu’à la mort pour échapper à l’avilissement que sa fierté de femme avertie ne peut plus supporter, Breughel inverse les rôles dans le duel qui l’oppose à Kotter dans le seul but de veiller à la survie de Gloria, son amante devenue folle internée en hôpital psychiatrique. Il y a un intérêt à la fois dément et solennel, quasiment mystique, chez ces êtres qui veulent sublimer l’individu tout en faisant abstraction de leur propre personne. Ce désintérêt sublime parvient, volens nolens, à un certain degré de réenchantement du monde car, si l’on extrapole un tant soit peu, la quête axiologique qu’il sous-tend intègre des valeurs humaines autrefois sacrées : la pitié, l’altruisme, le courage, la persévérance, la volonté, le don de soi quel que soit le prix à payer. Et il résulte de cette convergence chez des auteurs si différents quant aux thèmes traités, au genre et au style, une curieuse rénovation de la fonction artistique que Marcel Gauchet définit comme suit :
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La novela negra en Francia

La novela negra en Francia

propia del “roman policier” a través del nuevo enfoque, mucho más permeable, que va aportar el “roman noir”. Esta nueva perspectiva libera al escritor de aquellas pautas y elementos obligatorios que debían estar presentes en su relato. De esta manera, el asesinato ya no tiene por qué ser el desencadenante necesario de la acción y por lo tanto, de las operaciones del detective, sino que surgirá a lo largo del relato; la estructura no será ya retrospectiva sino prospectiva; tampoco habrá un punto de llegada a partir del cual el narrador envuelve los acontecimientos ocurridos en el pasado. El desarrollo narrativo no es continuo sino que admite variaciones rítmicas, encadenar episodios relativamente cerrados e insertar unidades descriptivas. Además ahora el detective se integra en el universo de los demás personajes, en lugar de permanecer como observador independiente, y como tal, perderá su inmunidad, hecho que le llevará a arriesgar y poner en peligro constantemente su vida. ¿Y quién recuerda ya al distinguido detective del más clásico “roman policier”? Este grave y solemne personaje ha sido sustituido por un “privé” solitario, desarraigado, violento, marginal, desengañado y maleducado, al límite de la legalidad, que comprende toda una gama de sociolectos y que frecuenta los barrios más conflictivos de la ciudad en busca de criminales, convertidos ahora en profesionales, en auténticos asesinos a sueldo. Este aspecto unido al cambio experimentado en la intriga, que pasa de la mera curiosidad al suspense, hará que el lector sufra con angustiosa espera el desarrollo de los acontecimientos. Añadamos, igualmente, que el “roman noir” se aproxima más a la novela de aventuras que a la de intriga, ya que el culpable es descubierto en seguida, haciendo que la acción sustituya al misterio: lo importante
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ENTREVISTA AL PROFESOR ROMAN DE LA CALLE

ENTREVISTA AL PROFESOR ROMAN DE LA CALLE

la fenomenología, un grupo de jóvenes profesores formamos el “Colectivo de Estudio de Comunicación Artística” (CECA) y nos pusimos ilusionados a trabajar determinad[r]

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Between outer space and human space: knowing space as the origin of anthropology

Between outer space and human space: knowing space as the origin of anthropology

Still, one did not need to have an empire in order to wish to orient oneself with globes. Consider Figure 7, which contains the frontispiece to a German pedagogical work on astronomy published in 1723, and in which we have Ratio teaching young boys about the universe via the two globes. Figure 8 offers another unique example of the global imagination, a pocket globe that was produced in England in the late eighteenth century and that allowed the owner to study, while away from home, both the terrestrial and the celestial spheres. I think this evidence cements how significant these two abstract spheres became to people in eighteenth-century Europe. However, were these things insufficient to make the case, Figure 9 displays another frontispiece to a work that had nothing to do with astronomy, or even geometry. Entitled Der Hausvater, this work was a multi-volume encyclopedia on farming that was first published in 1766 in Hannover. The image is supposed to represent the office of a well off peasant farmer (Hausvater in the German economic lexicon of the period), which is chock full of means for orienting oneself in the natural world, including a barometer, thermometer, mineral cabinet, a telescope on the desk, alongside a compass and if you look to the top of the two bookshelves you see the ultimate in spatial orientation, the two globes. 56 Now, I cannot say why a farmer might have needed any of
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Le roman arborescent

Le roman arborescent

10 Rentré chez vous, votre pdre vous felicite de votre audace et vous offre un avión particulier avec lequel vous vous tuez.. 11 La liberté récupérée, vous décidez de changer de vie et v[r]

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Spanish Guinea: Enclave Empire

Spanish Guinea: Enclave Empire

One writer charges that the democratic Republic of the 1930's attempted to plant "radical ideas" in Guinea by extinguishing the of- ficial influence of the miss[r]

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