PDF superior Ciencia e innovación tecnológica. Volumen V

Growth and shared prosperity in Brazil

Growth and shared prosperity in Brazil

This paper proposes extensions of the idea of shared prosperity and inclusive development. It explores dynamic growth linkages between mean income, inequality and social welfare, on the one hand, and different labor ingredients and income sources, on the other. We propose a new decomposition method that quantifies the contributions to the shared growth patterns observed of social policies such as education, social security benefits, BPC and Bolsa Família and of classic labor market performance such as unemployment and participation rates, returns to schooling, hourly wages and hours worked. The paper also extends the idea of shared prosperity to shared opportunities that leads to new measures of inequity in opportunities. These can be calculated from household surveys that provide information on individuals’ access to various basic services in education, health, living conditions and so on. The proposed methodologies are applied to the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) covering the period 2001-2013. Many policy questions relating to labor market performance and social policies are explored in explaining how Brazil achieved shared growth since the dawn of the new millennium.
More...

Lee mas

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE UBERLÂNDIA FACULDADE DE ENGENHARIA QUÍMICA GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA DE

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE UBERLÂNDIA FACULDADE DE ENGENHARIA QUÍMICA GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA DE

The microbiological quality is important for the quality of the final products, thus the presence of Bacillus spp. in milk represents a problem for the dairy industry due to its sporulation capacity and resistance of the spore to heat treatment for Ultra High Temperature (UHT). The Bacillus sporothermodurans survives, germinate and multiplying in the stored milk and, if not were identified, can be exceed the limit determined by legislation for aerobic mesophilic microorganisms. In addition, high numbers of this microorganisms can generate changes in the quality of dairy products. Therefore, the objective of this work was evaluate the occurrence of Bacillus sporothermodurans in raw milk in a dairy industry in Brazil, to generate data that allow to identify the origin and frequency of these microorganisms. Of the 300 samples of raw milk samples analyzed, only 23 showed no colonies characteristic of Bacillus sporothermodurans. The other 277 samples (92.3%) exhibited characteristics colonies. The positive results of oxidase and esculina, negative to fermentation of glucose and growth in anaerobic conditions, indicates that the colonies were Bacillus sporothermodurans in all tests. Keywords: Bacillus sporothermodurans, Spores, UHT milk
More...

Lee mas

Strenghthening long-term growth in Brazil

Strenghthening long-term growth in Brazil

High (and inefficient) taxation has been identified as a severe constraint to growth, for it significantly reduces savings and returns on investment, thus holding back growth. Accordingly, fiscal reform should aim at reducing current expenditures relative to GDP, while creating the fiscal space needed to increase public infrastructure investment and simultaneously reducing the overall government deficit. In addition, interest rates are high because of a high tax burden: the uncertainty brought about by a high public debt to GDP ratio which results from an expensive tax burden is a contributor to high interest rates. Two issues stand out in looking for candidates for expenditure reduction: pension and retirement reform; and current government expenditures on goods and services. 63 With the inauguration of a new administration in January 2011 there are hopes that both of these issues be tackled. However, it would be too optimistic to expect radical changes (and results) in the short and medium terms.
More...

Lee mas

Finance-led growth regime in Brazil.

Finance-led growth regime in Brazil.

No período 2004-2008, a taxa de lucro empresarial nitidamente supera o ganho financeiro, induzindo à alocação diretamente produtiva das poupanças das firmas, daí as maiores taxas de crescimento econômico. A formação bruta de capi- tal fixo volta a crescer, puxando a taxa de acumulação de capital. O sentido em que o novo regime de crescimento se classifica como um finance-led growth justi- fica-se de duas maneiras: i) a norma de rentabilidade financeira comanda as deci- sões de alocação de capital, e então as expectativas de investimento produtivo, tanto nesse quanto no primeiro período. Porém, a partir de 2004, além da renta- bilidade real do capital fixo produtivo (R) ter entrado em uma tendência de cres- cimento 3 , o ganho financeiro paralelamente declina, o que promove o investimen-
More...

Lee mas

Brazil international trade and economic growth

Brazil international trade and economic growth

A more consistent view is that a substantia1 decline in real wages was inevitable, given the policy objectives of increasing indirect taxes, real rents and real [r]

Lee mas

REGIONAL DISPARITIES, PUBLIC POLICIES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN BRAZIL

REGIONAL DISPARITIES, PUBLIC POLICIES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN BRAZIL

Although Chu et al. (2002) conclude that in developing countries the tax-benefit distribution effect is less significant than in developed countries, Immervol et al. (2006) attribute the cause of the problem to the fact that social spending bears little relation to need. Extreme regional disparities have characterized Brazil, and the northeast and north regions continue to lag economically behind those other regions. However, there exists significant improvement in socioeconomic indicators made by these regions, and it has even led to a gradual convergence in living standards. According to the data from Brazil’s statistical agency (IBGE), the south and southeast regions generate around 70% of the country’s GDP. However, while disparities persist there are signs of convergence across regions and some factors should explain this catch up such as the emphasis on social programs by the Brazilian central government, the large public investments in infrastruc- ture and fiscal incentives provided by the federal government and the states through tax exemptions and subsidized credit (KUMAR, 2012).
More...

Lee mas

795 REVIEW MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL FOR GROWTH

795 REVIEW MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL FOR GROWTH

Pleurotus eryngii, known as Cardoncello or "King oyster" mushrooms in English-speaking countries, is another species that demands a colder environment for fructification. This might require a greater investment for its continuous production. In spite of this, it is a species with great potential in Brazil because it has a harder consistency. Thus, it lasts a longer time on a shelf and is highly appropriate for use on grills, with a good and bland flavor, independent of preparation conditions. In Canada, this mushroom is also produced under controlled conditions, allowing for development of the stipe in relation to its pileus to reflect market preferences. In Brazil, without appropriate control of environmental conditions, the mushroom usually has a more developed pileus. However, this is not a problem because national markets do not show any restrictions in relation to pileus development. On the other hand, it is important to highlight that the market for this mushroom is still very limited, in spite of its great potential. As for other species in this genus, its cultivation is easily obtained on sawdust-based substrates. It is important to keep the temperature below 20º C, as tests carried out in Brazil have shown that they fructify well at 19º C. This temperature might occur naturally in the autumn and spring seasons, depending on the cultivation region. However, to increase its production, it will be important to study in more detail the factors involved in this mushroom's fructification and morphology, and it could become one of the best options for the Brazilian market.
More...

Lee mas

Expolinear model on soybean growth in Argentina and Brazil

Expolinear model on soybean growth in Argentina and Brazil

Soybean (Glycine max Merrill L.) has emerged as one of the most important agricultural products of Argentina and Brazil. In these countries, due to their land extension and climatic conditions, it is very common that soybean grows under water shortage during at least one period of its season. The water deficit consequence is even more significant when the culture is in the reproductive phase. The flowering of determinate growth varieties is specially affected, while those of undetermined growth varieties which are more common in the centre of the Buenos Aires province , the phenological phase of the grain filling is more affected by the water shortage (CONFALONE et al., 2001).
More...

Lee mas

Structural change, productivity growth and trade policy in Brazil

Structural change, productivity growth and trade policy in Brazil

We reconcile our findings with the stylized fact observed in McMillan and Rodrik (2011), by emphasizing the fact that in an emerging economy like Brazil, structural changes have become much less important to explaining productivity growth than in the past. One possible explanation for this is that the country has already become industrialized, and the economy’s exceeding labor force that historically migrated from Agriculture has found other destinations. Some potential destinations, as shown in Table 2, present better perspectives, in terms of future earnings, than in the Manufacturing sector. This indicates that productivity growth has spilled over to other sectors, mainly as a result of increases in the human capital of individual workers.
More...

Lee mas

Growth process in business and social entrepreneurship: the case of Brazil

Growth process in business and social entrepreneurship: the case of Brazil

objective in the eyes of many. By the same token scholars and researchers have been fascinated by a topic that is so central and indeed so complex because of its multiple ramifications and its interactions with diverse field of studies which range from history to sociology and from management to psychology (Bhide, Roberts, Sahlman and Stevenson, 1999, p. 7; Venkataraman 1997, p. 120, Ahmad and Seymour 2008). In the last decades the concept of entrepreneurship has been enriched by that of social entrepreneurship (Alvord, Brown & Letts, 2004; Dees&Elias 1998). A social entrepreneur is an entrepreneur that has as a primary objective the creation of social value and the improvement of the well-being for the society as a whole (Dees, 1998). The birth and growth of the concept of social entrepreneurship is due to the increased awareness of the role individuals can play in re-shaping society and in solving some of the most taunting problems our world is facing. Some of these problems are diseases, famines and access to education, just to cite a few. Driven by some inspirational individuals such as Mohammad Yunnus, the founder of Grameen Bank, social entrepreneurs have become more and more common all over the world in developed as well as in developing societies and represent now a reality, which is impossible to ignore.
More...

Lee mas

Aging and growth parameter from the Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu) from the Cuiabá river, Mato Grosso, Brazil

Aging and growth parameter from the Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu) from the Cuiabá river, Mato Grosso, Brazil

Study area. Individuals of P. mesopotamicus were collected in the Cuiabá River, a tributary of the Paraguay River and Manso River, in the stretch under the influence of APM-Manso Reservoir (Fig. 1). This area is located above the Pantanal of Mato Grosso in the Mid-west region of Brazil. The Pantanal begins just after the municipalities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, where the Cuiabá River begins to increase in size (o liveirA et al., 2005). Following

Lee mas

Age and growth of Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae) in southern Brazil

Age and growth of Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae) in southern Brazil

In order to facilitate the sectioning, and given their small size, the vertebrae were embedded in polyester resin. To accomplish this, the vertebrae were dried under a paper towel at room temperature about one hour before embedding in the resin. After being embedded in the resin, the vertebrae were sagitally sectioned using a low speed Buehler IsoMet cutter (with two saws spaced 0.5 mm apart), resulting in a cut similar to a “bowtie”. These cuts were stained using a saturated solution of crystal violet for 3 minutes. They were then left to dry between absorbent papers and pressed by two microscope slides for 24 hours to keep the cut from rolling up. Once dry, the cuts were placed on microscope slides using Cytoseal 60.
More...

Lee mas

Countercyclical fiscal policy, international financial crisis and economic growth in Brazil.

Countercyclical fiscal policy, international financial crisis and economic growth in Brazil.

O teste de cointegração de Johansen com quebra estrutural indicou a existência de relação de equilíbrio de longo prazo entre as variáveis analisadas, e o teste de causalidade de Grange[r]

Lee mas

The quest for entrepreneurial growth in a tumultuous Brazil

The quest for entrepreneurial growth in a tumultuous Brazil

 The main principle behind bootstrapping is to grow organically and fund development through internal cash flow. Considering Carrinho em Casa is unit profitable, they are in a position where bootstrapping would be viable. This is the strategy they had used up until now, as it is one of the lower-cost available options. Indeed, the business model employed by Carrinho em Casa is quite suitable for such a financing strategy. According to Harvard Business School professor Amar Bhide’s article entitled: “Bootstap Finance: The Art of Startups”, several conditions need to be met in order for bootstrapping to be effective. These include, “getting operational quickly” and looking for “quick, break-even, cash generating projects”. Carrinho em Casa has done both. By imitating an already proven business model (Instacart in the United States), David and Ricardo were able to skip certain steps of the brainstorming process and hit the ground running. In addition, as previously mentioned, the company is unit profitable when it comes to the deliveries they perform, so although they lack volume and scale, they do have positive internal cash flow. Keith Kakacek, founder of the commercial insurance group, SIR Llyods states that he: “learned early that it is better to have a low-profile, positive cash-flow job than a high-ego, negative cash-flow job. If the market doesn’t pay for your business—and you can’t develop positive cash flow —you probably don’t have a good enough concept.”
More...

Lee mas

Marcelo Francisco de Nóbrega

Marcelo Francisco de Nóbrega

Age distribution, calculated using the age-length key, indicated an accentuated catch rate of immature specimens. According to Nóbrega & Lessa (2009a) the FL at first maturity for S. brasiliensis off northeastern Brazil is 42 cm, when individuals are between 3.6 and 4 years of age, based on the estimated growth curves in the present study (considering the difference in growth between sexes). Thus, it can be concluded that approximately 58% of catches are immature specimens. Management measures that encourage an increase in the mesh size of gillnets are urgent, as is an increase usage of hand lines rather than nets in order to promote rational catches of this important fishery resource in waters off northeastern Brazil.
More...

Lee mas

MORTALITY AND DIAMETER GROWTH OF LIANAS IN A SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

MORTALITY AND DIAMETER GROWTH OF LIANAS IN A SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

Stem diameter range, extremes of diameter increase in 30 months, and mean annual secondary growth of lianas in the sampled plots in a fragment of semideciduous fore[r]

Lee mas

Influence of intrauterine and extrauterine growth on neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins

Influence of intrauterine and extrauterine growth on neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins

by birth weight dissimilarity above 15% are probably asso- ciated with one growth-restricted infant (30,31) and a higher risk of impaired physical and mental development for the lighter member of the pair (13,14). These findings indicate the effect of individual factors influencing the adaptation in the intrauterine environment. On the other hand, Goyen et al. (9) demonstrated a strong association between cogni- tive performance and between-pair growth impairment. However, our results did not indicate any influence of intrauterine growth on cognition at 12 to 42 months cor- rected age, thus not corroborating this report. On the contrary, our findings indicated that only postnatal head growth due to non-shared extrauterine factors might repre- sent a major influence on cognitive development of twins. The present study provides evidence that the intrauter- ine factors that affect head circumference development can be modified during an early sensitive postnatal period (32). In our sample, specific adverse effect on cognitive function of infants born from twin gestations was associ- ated with head circumference postnatal growth, indicating that the pattern of head circumference growth during in- fancy can influence cognition (33). On the other hand, it is not possible to exclude the influence of non-shared factors on systematic environmental experience, such as acci- dents and illnesses, determining differences in develop- ment among co-twins.
More...

Lee mas

Firms, Informality and Development: Theory and evidence from Brazil

Firms, Informality and Development: Theory and evidence from Brazil

The crucial difference between these types is how they would respond to a policy that eliminates entry costs into the formal sector. Type 3 firms would formalize their business and would be better off in this counter-factual scenario, as they are no longer constrained by the growth limitations imposed by informality. Hence, any model that does not account for entry costs into the formal sector cannot account for this view, as there would be no bunching of informal firms near the transition threshold. However, the other two types are not so easily distinguishable, as both are predicted to remain informal in the absence of entry costs. Any model that has firms sorting between sectors, even without entry costs and productivity uncertainty, would be able to account for these two types. The crucial differentiation between Types 1 and 2 is the reason why they remain informal. Type 2 firms are productive enough to survive in the formal sector (once entry barriers are removed), but choose to remain informal to receive higher profits. Type 1 firms are simply not productive enough to be formal, and are only able to survive due to the cost advantages of non-compliance.
More...

Lee mas

THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES IN BRAZIL

THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES IN BRAZIL

This paper discusses number of institutional repositories, software used, what are the content available in IR, which language mostly used in Brazil. Currently the intellectual output of the educators and the organization plays an essential role in the education knowledge process of a Higher Educational Institution. Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Datasets etc are scattered in many places of an institution in print and electronic form. Therefore it is essential to collect, classify, arrange and store these materials digitally in a single platform by establishing Institutional Repository (IR) and to provide easy access to them over intranet/internet to the institute community and others. The 84 repositories are available in Brazil country with consists of total 11, 17,688 number of records and 62 repositories are in a mono-lingual type language which is used Spanish and Portuguese only. It is found that, most of the repositories are also used Portuguese languages but only one repository are generated by using Spanish language only.
More...

Lee mas

Household income inequality and economic growth in Brazil

Household income inequality and economic growth in Brazil

The studies that search to verify that reciprocal effect as a single direction effect are just making an abstraction with respect to the empirical nature of the problem. Starting from the fact that indeed there exist a simultaneity between growth and income inequality, and taking for reference the most recent contributions in light of the theory of economic growth, it can grouped the growth models in at least four types: the) the models of human capital; b) the trade models that appear as the trade opening and its influence on the productive structure, have been affecting the dynamics of the labor market and, therefore in the relative wages of the qualified labor vis a vis the non-qualified labor; c) the models of political economy that emphasize the existence of social and political conflicts in the decisions of implementations of government policies that can influence direct and indirectly the distribution of income; d) the restriction models (especially) of credit that, based on the hypotheses of market imperfections, incomplete markets, and in the theories of adverse selection and moral hazard, accentuate how the restricted conditions of capital and wealth create adverse effects on the relationship between inequality and growth.
More...

Lee mas

Show all 10000 documents...